Liberalism Mindmap

floragair
Mind Map by floragair, updated more than 1 year ago
floragair
Created by floragair over 5 years ago
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Description

Basic mind map of Liberalism, good for tests in lessons but not enough detail for an exam

Resource summary

Liberalism Mindmap
1 Core Values
1.1 Individualism
1.1.1 A belief in the importance of an individual over any social group
1.1.1.1 Developed as feudalism broke down
1.1.1.1.1 Key thinkers include: John Locke, Thomas Jefferson, Adam Smith and Herbert Spencer
1.2 Liberty
1.2.1 A relationship free from oppression or coercion with the absence of disabling conditions and the fulfilment or enabling conditions
1.2.1.1 connected with concepts of civil liberty and human rights
1.2.1.1.1 Includes thinkers such as MacIntyre, Kompridis and Berlin
1.3 Reason
1.3.1 Basing opinions/actions on reason and knowledge rather than religious belief or emotional response
1.3.1.1 central theme to the enlightenment era
1.3.1.1.1 brought us into the 'age of reason'
1.3.1.1.1.1 Thinkers include: Thomas Paine, Voltaire, John Locke
1.4 Justice
1.4.1 A moral standard of fairness and impartiality where everyone has equal worth
1.4.1.1 includes distribution of wealth and taxation (social justice)
1.4.1.1.1 Key thinkers include: Ronald Dwarkin, Akerman and Rawls
1.5 Toleration
1.5.1 An assurance of autonomy that's necessary for delf-developemnt and progress of the human race
1.5.1.1 Protects minority groups
1.5.1.2 ' I detest what you say but I will defend to my death your right to say it'
1.5.1.2.1 Key thinker: Voltaire
2 The Liberal State
2.1 Classical Ideas
2.1.1 State should be severly limited
2.1.1.1 Should act as a 'night-watchmen' state, purely as protection rather than control
2.1.1.2 The state should be an umpire/neutral referee over society
2.1.1.2.1 Laissez-faire economic policies
2.1.2 Freedom can only exist under the law as where there is no law there is no freedom
2.1.3 State created by individuals for individuals
2.1.3.1 Should embody the interests of all its citizens
2.1.3.2 Citizens therefore are not obligated to follow rules they do not agree with and have a right to rebellion
2.1.4 Social Contracts
2.1.4.1 Individuals give up a portion of their liberty in order to set up a system of law
2.2 Modern Ideas
2.2.1 More regulation of the economy to benefit the many
2.2.1.1 Increase aggregate demand through spending or taxation
2.2.1.1.1 regulation was necessary as capitalist economies became more complex
2.2.2 Ideas about a welfare state
2.2.2.1 Created more equal life opportunities
2.2.2.1.1 connections to positive freedom 'freedom to'
2.2.2.1.2 Attacking the 'five giants'
2.2.3 still limited
2.2.4 More focus on education for the masses and healthcare
2.2.4.1 NHS and State education
3 Classical Liberalism
3.1 Egoistical individualism
3.1.1 emphasises self-interest and self-reliance
3.1.1.1 negative view of the state
3.1.2 individuals are driven by their own needs
3.2 Atomisic society
3.2.1 individuals are separate and distinct atoms
3.2.1.1 Society should be organised for the benefit of these individuals
3.3 Negative freedom
3.3.1 'Freedom from' external constraint upon an individual so that they act in a way they desire
3.3.1.1 rolling back of the state
3.3.1.2 e.g freedom of speech, movement, taxation
3.3.2 idea expanded by Isaiah Berlin
3.4 Utilitarianism
3.4.1 developed by Jeremy Bentham
3.4.1.1 value and pleasure in protection
3.4.1.1.1 promotes individualism and rationalism
3.4.1.1.1.1 'The greatest good for the greatest number'
4 Modern Liberalism
4.1 Self-realisation
4.1.1 individuals obtain freedom through beneficial social conditions
4.1.1.1 Individuals are able to achieve their own aspirations
4.1.1.1.1 A more humane society filled with toleration
4.2 welfare liberlism
4.2.1 emergence of a welfare state to create a more equal society
4.2.1.1 developed by Rawls and Bentham
4.2.1.2 this gave people equality of opportunity for human flourishing and self-fulfilment
4.2.1.3 relieved people from the 'five giants'
4.2.1.3.1 Want, squalor, ignorance, disease and idleness
4.2.1.3.1.1 Led to the NHS, education system, state housing
4.2.1.3.1.1.1 implies state intervention
4.3 Positive freedom
4.3.1 'Freedom to'
4.3.1.1 Freedom of autonomy, implying personal development, self-realisation and self-fulfilment
4.3.1.1.1 people must be guided to reach their potential
4.3.1.1.2 includes a right to education, healthcare and minimum wage to provide maximum freedom and equality
4.3.1.1.2.1 could be used as a force of oppression?
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