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By: Sofia Ramirez


The following mind map explores the TOK prescribed title 2. It includes areas of knowledge, ways of knowing, arguments among counter-arguments among others.
Sofia  Ramirez
Mind Map by Sofia Ramirez , updated more than 1 year ago
Sofia  Ramirez
Created by Sofia Ramirez over 6 years ago

Resource summary

  1. Knowledge within a discipline develops according to the principles of natural selection. How useful is this metaphor?
    1. Related Areas of knowledge
      1. Human Sciences (economics)
        1. Ways of knowing
          1. Memory
            1. Humans often make decisions based on specific situations experienced in the past. If the situation was pleasent or benefited them it is very likely for them to repeat it. However, if a situation brought severe consequences, the probabilities of experiencing it again are almost null.
          2. WHY
            1. As organisms, humans are also involved with the concept of natural selection. This means that any type of pressure in the environment makes them react in a certain way. However the one that can best adapt to change is the one that survives by all means, financially, socially, academically, etc.
          3. Natural Sciences
            1. Ways of knowledge
              1. Reason
                1. The logic, rational, and critical thinking of individuals allow them to act in a certain way when faced with an environmental pressure..
              2. WHY?
                1. The concept of natural selection is directly linked to the natural sciences, specifically to biology and the theory of evolution. It explains how the organisms that best adapt to the pressures of the environment are the ones that survive, reproduce, and grow.
              3. Indigenous Knowledge Systems
                1. Ways of knowing
                  1. Language
                    1. Knowledge is often transmitted orally from one generation to another
                  2. WHY?
                    1. The concept of natural selection not only applies to organisms, but to traditional practices. as well. As new environmental pressures emerge indigenous knowledge systems are forced to change and adapt in order to survive. Similar to organism,s indigenous tribes have extincted due to their lack of rapid adaptation to a specific change in the environment.
                2. Reasons why I am interested in the title
                  1. Although the concept of natural selection is most commonly referred to in the natural sciences, it can also explain human behavioral patterns in the actual society
                    1. Natural selection is a timeless concept. This means that it can be used to explain trends and patterns that occured in the past, that are occuring in the present, and that are likely to occur in a future.
                    2. By: Sofia Ramirez G.
                    3. Central Knowledge Question
                      1. To what extent can the principle of natural selection explain the relationships and behaviors of individuals within a society?
                        1. Subsidiary Knowledge Questions
                          1. To what extent can our experiences influence the decisions that we make?
                            1. To what extent is language the most effective tool to survive?
                              1. How can individual experiences help the adaption of a community?
                              2. Thesis statement
                                1. Argument 1: knowledge acquired within a discipline is only considered valuable when it remains useful through time and can be used in other areas. A clear example of this is the effectiveness of medical advances within the scientific community. This makes reference to specific medical practices that have been left aside due to their incapacity to adapt to the recent technological pressures.
                                  1. Possible real life situation
                                    1. Possible real life situation: According to BBC News (September, 2015) "New scan aims to aid tumour detection". New technologies in the medical field can make processes such as the detection of tumours, easier, faster, and more effective. By adapting to emerging technologies, determining the extent of tumours by hand, as it is currently done, can be and forgotten.
                                  2. Argument 2 Individuals that conform to the social norms are able to survive. On the other hand, individuals that contradict social stereotypes are less likely to succeed. Studies in the psychology and economics field confirm such statement by explaining how the principle of natural selection is applied to human societies nowadays through the rejection of practices or people that do not cope up with the pressures of the modern society.
                                    1. Possible real life situation
                                      1. The streaming service "Spotify" demonstrates not only the principle of natural selection, but the idea of competition among species. Traduced to a bussiness language, Spotify has implemented new designs to cope up with its main competitors youtube and itunes. (The guardian, 2014)
                                    2. Possible counter- argument specific Indigenous systems have been able to maintain their traditional practices even though they are constantly exposed to the modern world. Although they have not adapted to the technological era nor become westernised due to globalisation, indigenous tribes have remained truthful to the practices that have proved to be useful and effective for survival. This also demonstrates how the principle of natural selection is reflected upon human societies nowadays.
                                      1. Possible real life situation
                                        1. The indigenous tribes Arhuaco, Wiwa, Kogi, and Kankuamo have lived in the Sierra Nevada (Santa Marta, Colombia.) since long ago. According to "Survival", a global movement that stands for the tribal peoples’ rights, "Despite the Indians’ peaceful nature, [...] many have been killed or forced to flee from the quasi-civil war raging on their land." However, some have adapted to the social pressures by promoting principles of honesty and sense of community. Others have adapated a life upper on the mountain, however both of them have been able to survive.
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