TOK mindmap “Without application in the world, the value of knowledge is greatly diminished.”


TOK mindmap for essay
Gabriela Serpa
Mind Map by Gabriela Serpa, updated more than 1 year ago
Gabriela Serpa
Created by Gabriela Serpa over 8 years ago

Resource summary

TOK mindmap “Without application in the world, the value of knowledge is greatly diminished.”
  1. Reasons that I'm interested in this title
    1. 1st Reason: When evaluating this title, I found that it could be linked with most areas of knowledge and ways of knowing, therefore I realized that it gave me numerous angles to work from
      1. 2nd Reason: It was the title that evoked the most reaction and emotion from me.
        1. 3rd Reason: I found myself constantly changing opinions when evaluating it, something that made the question appealing.
    2. Thesis Statement
      1. Both the application and the withdrawal of personal knowledge influences the creation of shared knowledge, making it so that the value of knowledge in itself is defined not only by it's application, but it's lack of thereof.
        1. Area of Knowledge: HISTORY
          1. Ways of knowing: memory, language, emotion and reason
            1. Arguments
              1. When not shared or applied, personal knowledge has value nonetheless.
                1. Why?
                  1. Throughout history, a lack of knowledge and information has led numerous people and even leaders to take decisions that have altered the course of the world. In this way, one could say that ignorance has defined the world just as much as knowledge has. Personal knowledge has been widthheld throughout history through manipulation, lies and secrets, which have caused chain reactions that in many cases can still be seen today. Keeping a secret means avoiding the application of that specific piece of knowledge in a situation, but in doing so, one could deliberately control that situation. Personal knowledge and the acts of both hiding and revealing it changes possible outcomes of history, and irrefutably has value as a result.
                  2. Example
                    1. President Nixon of the United States is considered one of the biggest liars in history. The Watergate Scandal, or the incident that earned him this title, was the result of the June 17, 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C.. Richard Nixon's administration attempted to cover-up of its involvement as did the president. When the conspiracy was discovered and investigated by the U.S. Congress, after resistance Nixon and most of his team resigned. This led to a constitutional crisis in the United States. Had Nixon shared his personal knowledge with the world instead of denying his involvement, the whole of this decade in the USA could have been played out differently, thus altering that moment in time. In this sense, personal knowledge was not applied, it was withheld, but defined history nonetheless.
                  3. Shared knowledge is directly applied in the world therefore it is valuable..
                    1. Why?
                      1. In terms of shared knowledge, I believe that history is an area of complete relevance. The concept of history it in itself relies on sharing, as it uses history books, broadcasts and basically all information to recollect parts of the past and make them publicly availeable and known. Though few people are the protagonists of history, those who collect all the the events into textbooks, articles or whatnot contribute to make it shared. History is studied in schools and referenced daily, making it so that it is inevitably applied with frequency in the world. If it weren't as widely spread or known as it is, History would not have the same impact on the world. History repeats itself but nonetheless it is important to learn from mistakes and understand one's past, as well as the past of others. Keeping history personal would greatly dimish it's value, as that would mean hiding important information from the world, and avoiding there was ever a past to begin with.
                      2. Example
                        1. The publicity surrounding the atomic bomb of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 was an instance in which History became shared knowledge. Due to the spread of images and horror stories about the attack, governments have gone to extreme lengths to avoid repeating the past. John F. Kennedy's Appeasement Strategy in the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 averted a Nuclear Holocaust, and this is only one of the instances in which countries have gone a long way to prevent a nuclear war. Had the information about Hiroshima and Nagasaki been kept completely personal, the people, aswell as governments would not know enough about the past in order to avoid repeating it.
                  4. Area of Knowledge: THE ARTS
                    1. Ways of knowing: Emotion, imagination and memory
                      1. Arguments
                        1. Shared knowledge is directly applied to the world, therefore it is valuable
                          1. Why?
                            1. In the visual arts, projects are seldom not shared with the world, as the main purpose of them is to exhibit and even sell. Art is made to be seen and shared, therefore it is born personal knowledge and develops into shared knowledge once it is finished and exhibited. The same is true for music; if musicians didn't share their music with a general public, they wouldn't really be considered musicians at all. The arts are made to share. As for application, most investigations behind any artistic process stem from earlier works of art. One usually has inspiration from an exterior source when creating art. In making art shared knowledge, one is contributing to the artistic world, as numerous people take both inspiration and simple joy in viewing it. In the same way, art is applied in the world through sharing, as artists continously learn from eachother. If art was never shared, and was simply personal, the depth behind it, and it's real potential would never come to light.
                            2. Example
                              1. Lucio Fontana was the first artist to make an intervention in a canvas. Before him, people had done nothing but paint on canvas. He was revolutionary and the influence he left on the art world is still seen today. His influence can be seen in the art of many, namely in the work of Spanish artist Angela de la Cruz
                            3. When not shared or applied, personal knowledge has value nonetheless
                              1. Why?
                                1. Though works of art in themselves can be considered combinations of different kinds of shared knowledge, the fact that personal knowledge plays a valuable role in this area is unavoidable. Yes, art is created to be shared, but one's interpretation behind it is always influenced by emotion, reason and imagination. IB Visual Arts HL has a whole criteria based on the concept behind projects, and because of this I can affirm that interpretations are essential in art. Paintings and things of the sort are made to evoke emotion, and generate a response in the viewer. Whatever personal knowledge one has inevitably reflects not only the concept one gives to a piece of art, but the way the work of others is interpreted. The arts are supposedly a window to the soul, and without personal knowledge, this would not be true; the value of the arts in themselves would be diminished. One does not have to 'apply' or share one's opinion in order for it to have value.
                                2. Example
                                  1. "At the beginning of his essay ‘Fact, Explanation and Expertise’ philosopher Alasdair Macintyre tackles the problem of a world without interpretation... This paper explores possibilities for teaching interpretation through a report on an action-research project based on Tate Modern’s Summer Institute for Teachers, held in 2002. In doing so, it argues for the value and necessity of interpretation as a taught skill." (Charman and Ross, 2004).
                        2. Knowledge Question
                          1. To what extent is shared knowledge more valuable to the world than personal knowledge?
                            1. Subsidiary Knowledge Questions
                              1. How can one define 'value'?
                                1. Is it fair to say that if knowledge is not shared, it is not applied in the world?
                            2. Required Questions
                              1. The title is asking me to analyze whether or not the worth of knowledge is determined by it's application or use in the world.
                                1. The key concepts related to the title are 'application', 'knowledge' and 'value'
                                  1. The Areas of Knowledge that best apply are. History, the Arts and Indigenous Knowledge Systems.
                                    1. The Ways of Knowing that best apply are. language, emotion, sense perception, reason, imagination and memory.
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