1.1.1 Source: Lowther Hills,
Daer water and Portail
water come together to
form the River Clyde. |
Mouth: Firth Clyde which
becomes the Irish Sea|
Length of river: 160km |
Direction of flow: North
1.1.2 Waterfalls: Falls of Clyde = 4 Waterfalls in New Lanark
in Scotland: Cora Linn, Bonnington Linn, Dundaff Linn,
lower falls: Stonebyres Linn. Gorge of red sandstone.
188.8.131.52 Water Falls formed when hard rock lies over soft rock and water falls
over, making plunge pool as it erodes soft rock and leaves hard rock
rock overhang that will eventually fall off. So waterfalll retreats
1.1.3 Interlocking spurs: at Crawford,
between 300m and 500m high
184.108.40.206 Interlocking spurs are created as river winds round obstacles of rock.
The V-shaped valleys slope downwards and meet at the bottom like zip
1.1.4 Meanders: around Motherwell
220.127.116.11 Rivers flow in corkscrew motion called helical flow. This means that on the
inside bend of a river, there is deposition creating slip-off slopes because of
slower flow. On the outside bend, river flows faster, erding the land and
creating river cliffs, this means the river bends round and makes meanders.
1.1.5 Oxbow lake forming near
town of Udddington
18.104.22.168 The fast flow of a meander erodes the land making a rive cliff. The slow flow on
the inside bend of a meander deposits sediment onto a slip-off slope. Over time,
more erosion and deposition makes meander bigger. Finally, the deposition of
either end of the meander meets and the curves is cut-off from the river after
water floods over deposited sediment and dries up, leaving dry land. Over time,
the oxbow lake dries up.
1.1.6 Floodplain: Glasgow built on floodplain of Clyde. Land either side is 5m
above sea level.
22.214.171.124 In the lower stage, land is much
flatter and the river has less energy.
The flat land around river is a
floodplain, like to flood if river gets
1.1.7 Estuary: River Clyde estuary is 34km west of
Glasgow, is 3km wide. The river joins the Firth Cyde
which eventually becomes the Irish Sea.
126.96.36.199 Estuaries form just before the mouth of the river. Here, the
flow is affected by the seawater coming from the opposite
direction. The river slows down, loses energy and drops it's
load. The creates mudflats that form either side of the river
1.2 Boscastle Floods, August 2004 (flash flood)
1.2.1 Boscastle is in UK, SW
England. In Cornwall, North
from Newquay. Built at
Confluence of Valency and
188.8.131.52.1 Removing trees and vegetation from
valleys and so decreasing interception
184.108.40.206.2 Building on floodplains so
ground in is impermeable
so decreasing infiltration.
220.127.116.11.3 Construction of small bridges along the river
that trapped boulders and rocks and created
18.104.22.168.4 Artificially narrowing river so reducing carrying
22.214.171.124.5 Allowing trees to grow right beside river so they fell
in and blocked channels.
126.96.36.199 Physical (natural)
188.8.131.52.1 The catchment is small and includes
upland area of Bodmin that isn't very
184.108.40.206.2 Steep-sided valleys funnel water
220.127.116.11.3 Surface run-off reaches river
18.104.22.168.4 Summer of 2004 was
unusually wet so by
august the ground was
22.214.171.124.1 Holiday makers/
tourists who came
for holidays were
affected as Cornwall
is a popular holiday
126.96.36.199.2 Small businesses set up
by residents of Boscastle
who couldn't afford to pay
188.8.131.52.3 Owner of vehicles
of vehicles were
184.108.40.206.4 Schools and transport/travelling was
220.127.116.11.5 Residents of Boscastle who had to
deal with long-term/short-term damage.
18.104.22.168.6 No deaths.
22.214.171.124.1 Local wildlife affected as sewage
pipes burst and risk of
contamination form sewage.
126.96.36.199.2 Local ecosystems affected as they were
188.8.131.52.3 Local environment as it spoilt the
beautiful image of the time and made it
184.108.40.206 Making bridge-span wider so
it's more difficult to break and
be destroyed by force of
220.127.116.11 Retaining old defences for extra security.
18.104.22.168 Relocating defence wall and making river wider and
deeper so it can carry higher flows (more) water and a
22.214.171.124 Raise car park so cars are above
126.96.36.199 Remove trees right next to river so they are less
likey to fall in and block channels.
188.8.131.52 Form a wider channel upstream
of car park to create an area of
slower flow where larger sediment
will be deposited and river can
184.108.40.206 Taking away lower bridges to prevent damming effect
when boulders and trees fall into river.
1.3 Bangladesh Floods, July-September 1998
1.3.1 Bangladesh was part of India
in British Empire. Bangladesh is
now separate, but is
surrounded N, E and W by
India. Part of Asia. In South,
shares coastline with Bay of
220.127.116.11.1 Deforestation in the Himalayas, at the sources of
Brahmaputra and Ganges rivers so less interception,
more surface run-off.
18.104.22.168.2 Deforestation for fuel and grazing, so increased surface
22.214.171.124.3 In India, the Ganges has been diverted for irrigation,
increasing deposition or silt and reducing channel
capacity. In the rainy season water is let through causing
126.96.36.199.4 Rapid unplanned urban growth has added to the problem of flooding.
Urban populations in Bangladesh have increased from 4% in 1951 to 35%
in 2009 (estimate). The growth is largely made up of poor migrants who
often live in vulnerable areas.
188.8.131.52.5 Bangladesh is an LEDC and
so doesn't have much
money to spend on
maintaining flood defences
and creating them
184.108.40.206.1 Increased surface run-off
leads to soil erosion and more
silt, raising river beds. The bed
of the Brahmaputra is rising
220.127.116.11.2 Bangladesh is 80% flood plain
and delta makes it very
susceptible to flooding.
18.104.22.168.3 Cyclones at sea create a
22.214.171.124.4 Silt blocks river channels and creates
islands, reducing carrying capacity of
126.96.36.199.5 Meeting of 3 huge rivers increases
188.8.131.52.6 70% of total land area is less that 1m
above sea level-nowhere for water to
184.108.40.206.7 Heavy monsoon rains
220.127.116.11.8 Melting of snow
adds to volume in
18.104.22.168.1 Over 1300 people died.
22.214.171.124.2 Lack of access to medical care.
126.96.36.199.3 Roads and railways
swept away and so aid
and rescue distribution
188.8.131.52.4 Over 20 million made homeless and many lost everything.
184.108.40.206.5 Contamination of water by
sewage dead bodies/animals,
lack of clean water resulted in
spread of disease such as
Typhoid and Cholera
220.127.116.11.6 20% decrease in
production of exports
18.104.22.168.7 400 clothing factorises forced to close
22.214.171.124.8 Overall the floods cost the country over $1 billion
126.96.36.199.1 About 1/2 million
poultry and cattle were
188.8.131.52.2 668,529ha (hectares) of crops
184.108.40.206.3 Deposition of rich fertile soil onto land
220.127.116.11.4 Providing water for crops
18.104.22.168.5 57% of land flooded
22.214.171.124.6 ≈2/3 of land was covered by
water and Capital Dhaka, was
126.96.36.199.7 2 million tonnes of
188.8.131.52 Small scale - The Preparedness Programme
184.108.40.206.1 Cluster village:
village raised 2m
above sea level.
220.127.116.11.2 Raised homestead: individual
homes raised 2m above sea
level on earth banks. The earth
banks are planted with grass to
prevent erosion and grass
takes up water.
18.104.22.168.3 Flood Shelter: ≈2ha of
raised land where people
can bring livestock. Each
shelter has space for 100
families, has toilets and
22.214.171.124.4 Rescue boats:
areas most at risk
from flooding, near
126.96.36.199.5 Radios: radios given to each
flood warnings can be issued
and preparedness plan put
188.8.131.52.6 + : Appropriate
184.108.40.206.7 - : Short-term,
and flood risk
small no. people
220.127.116.11 Large scale - Dhaka
Integrated Flood Protection
18.104.22.168.1 Embankments - Earth
embankments built to hold back
rising water and save lives.
22.214.171.124.2 Slope Protection - to
reduce erosion of
embankments and soil
erosion, reduce flood
126.96.36.199.3 Drains - Storm
drains linked back to
rivers so water has
somewhere to go.
188.8.131.52.4 Sluice Gates - able to
close channels when
water rises and so
create a sort of dam so
people on the other
side are safe
184.108.40.206.5 + : Large no.
people, long term
220.127.116.11.6 - : Expensive, affordable
to make/maintain? Dams
1.4 Coastal Area and Landforms:
1.4.1 Swanage Bay and Studland Bay
18.104.22.168 Formation of Bays: Bays form when there
is a discordant coast line. In between
each hard rock headland is a layer of soft
rock which gets eroded by the sea to form
22.214.171.124 Formation of Old Harry's rocks: The sea
erodes the foot of the arch and the roof
becomes heavy and collapses. The
isolated rock is a stack. Over time stack is
undercut and collapses. A stump
remains at Swanage/Studland bay.