Metabolism and Enzymes

Emma.h.watt
Mind Map by Emma.h.watt, updated more than 1 year ago
Emma.h.watt
Created by Emma.h.watt over 4 years ago
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Cfe Higher Human Biology Mind Map on Metabolism and Enzymes, created by Emma.h.watt on 10/06/2015.

Resource summary

Metabolism and Enzymes
1 Cell Metabolism
1.1 collective term for thousands of biochemical reactions that occur in a living cell
2 Metabolic Pathways
2.1 a series of enzyme controlled reactions
2.1.1 can be reversible/irriversible
2.2 Anabolic reactions
2.2.1 large molecules are synthesised from several smaller molecules - energy required
2.3 Catabolic reactions
2.3.1 Large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules - energy released
3 Control of Metabolic Pathways
3.1 Gene Expression - genes are switched on and off. inducer binds to repressor, enzyme activity switched on, when all substrates synthesied, inducer frees repressor and repressor then switches off gene
3.2 Signal Molecules - can trigger reactions that switch genes on/off. Inracellular signal molecules work inside the cell that produced them, Intercellular signal molecules is from outside the cell that produced them.
3.3 Inhibitors
3.3.1 Non-Competitive
3.3.1.1 Bind to non-active sight and alter the shape of the active site, permanently denaturing enzyme
3.3.1.2 Effect is permanent
3.3.2 Competitive
3.3.2.1 Similar shape to enzyme active site, bind to it, and temporarily block it from binding with substrate
3.3.2.2 Effect can be cancelled out by and increase in substrate concentration
3.4 End Product (negative feedback) inhibition
3.4.1 the end product acts as a negative feedback to the pathway. inhibits and earlier enzyme, stops wasteful conversions
4 Enzymes
4.1 Biological catalysts, speed up reaction by lowering activation energy and providing and alternative route, without being used up
4.1.1 Activation energy is the minimum energy required for bonds to break and a reaction to take place, enzymes lower this so it can take place in living cells, below 40.C
4.2 induced fit
4.2.1 each enzyme can only act on one substrate. the active site is flexible and can fit perfectly to the substrate
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