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Biotechnology Basics

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A-Level Biology Mind Map on Biotechnology Basics, created by shannonk2 on 10/08/2015.
shannonk2
Mind Map by shannonk2, updated more than 1 year ago
shannonk2
Created by shannonk2 over 6 years ago
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Resource summary

Biotechnology Basics
  1. What is biotechnology?
    1. -The industrial use of living organisms to produce food, drugs and other products
    2. Why use microorganisms?
      1. eg bacteria and fungi
        1. easy to create ideal growth conditions
          1. they grow rapidly under correct conditions so can make products quickly
            1. they can grow on a range of inexpensive materials and waste
              1. they can be grown at any time of the year
                1. no ethical issues are raised
                  1. they reproduce asexually so offspring are identical
                    1. bacteria have only a single copy of each gene so GM organisms have no other genes to masks the effects of that added gene
                    2. EXAMPLES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
                      1. -Penicillin: (drug production) fungus penicillium is grown in cultures and produces the antibiotic as a by product of its metabolism
                        1. -Mycoprotein: (food production) fungus fusarium is grown in culture. Fungal mycelium is produced and separated and processed as food
                          1. -Cheese and Yoghurt: (food production) bacteria lactobacillus grows in milk and changes the texture and flavour. These bacteria prevent growth of spoiling bacterium
                            1. -Bioremediation of waste products: (water waste treatment) variety of bacteria and fungi use organic waste in water as nutrients and make the waste harmless
                              1. Biogas fuel production: (enzyme production) methonagenic bacteria grown on concentrated sewage respire anaerobically and generate gases that can be used as fuel
                                1. -Insulin: (drug production) bacteria ecoli are genetically modified to carry human insulin gene. As the organisms grow they secrete the insulin protein. Insulin is a hormone used by diabetics with insufficient production of the hormone
                                  1. -Pectinase: (enzyme production) fungus A.niger grown in certain conditons, produces and secretes pectinase enzyme (used in fruit juices)
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