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Descriptions of key words and fuctions.
Mind Map by ryanpotter314, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by ryanpotter314 over 6 years ago

Resource summary

  1. Microscopes
    1. Optical
      1. Can view images up to 1000x but has a low resolution and therefore is not fit for viewing minute details.
      2. Electron
        1. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
          1. Like an MRI, SEMs take layers of samples and then join the sections together, creating a 3D image.
          2. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
        2. Organelles
          1. Cell Surface Membrane
            1. Controls what goes into and out of the cell. Controls osmosis and diffusion.
            2. Nucleus
              1. Contains DNA, mRNA travels from here through the nuclear pours to ribosomes to synthesise protiens
              2. Mitochondrion
                1. Cristae
                  1. Synthesises ATP (energy)
                2. Lysosomes
                  1. Digests unwanted cells and proteins
                  2. Ribosomes
                    1. Synthesises proteins.
                    2. Rough Endoplasmic Recticulum
                      1. Has ribosomes on the surface making its appearance look 'rough'. Centre of all protein synthesis.
                      2. Smooth Endoplasmic Recticulum
                        1. Manufactures lipids
                          1. Stores glycogen in the liver
                          2. Golgi Apparatus
                            1. Gathers small molecules and turns them into larger more complex ones. The apparatus packages them into vesicles and either stores them for later use or sends them out of the cell.
                              1. Synthesises lysosomes (cell digestion machines)
                                1. Digests unwanted proteins
                            2. Differential Centrifugation
                              1. Homogenate
                                1. Pellets are filtered using their deffering densities
                                  1. A: Blended cell, contains all organelles
                                    1. B: Nucleus
                                      1. C: Mitochondrion
                                        1. D: Ribosomes
                                      2. Isotonic
                                        1. Equal water potential.
                                        2. Buffer
                                          1. Prevents change in pH levels.
                                          2. Hypotonic
                                            1. Lower concentration of salts-> high water potential
                                            2. Hypertonic
                                              1. High concentration of salts-> low water potential
                                              2. Water Potential
                                                1. Ψ
                                                  1. Water potential is essentially a unit of osmosis, but water molecules do not transfer from high concentration to low, it is due to probability that molecules are around the same amount on each side.
                                                  2. Ice Cold
                                                    1. Halts enzyme activity.
                                                  3. Prokaryotic Cells
                                                    1. Does not contain a membrane bound nucleus or any membrane bound organelles
                                                      1. Bacteria Cells
                                                        1. Has a flagellum, capsule, bacterial chromosome, mesosomes, plasmid DNA and a plasma membrane.
                                                      2. Eukaryotic Cells
                                                        1. Contains a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
                                                          1. Animal
                                                            1. No cell wall or vacuole. Only has cell membrane. Contains mitochondrion for synthesising ATP
                                                            2. Plant
                                                              1. Has a cell wall, chloroplasts containing chlorophyll and vacuole.
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