SOC Chapter 7: Deviance

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Mind Map on SOC Chapter 7: Deviance, created by jjhawkes on 10/18/2015.

Resource summary

SOC Chapter 7: Deviance
  1. Deviance

    Annotations:

    • Behavior or trait that violates expected rules or norms. 
    1. Stigma

      Annotations:

      • A negative label that devalues a person and changes her or his self-concept and social identity. -E.g. Cause people to get cosmic surgery, join gangs, etc. 
      1. Formal

        Annotations:

        • Behavior that violates laws.
        1. Informal

          Annotations:

          • Behavior that disregards accpted social norms. Picking nose & teeth in public.
          1. Crime

            Annotations:

            • A violation of societal norms and rules or which punishment is specified by public law. 
            1. Criminologist

              Annotations:

              • Researchers who use scientific methods to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior. 
              1. Part I (Serious)

                Annotations:

                • Murder, rape, assault, robbery, etc. 
                1. Part II

                  Annotations:

                  • All other offenses including traffic violations. 
                  1. Victimization Survey

                    Annotations:

                    • Involves interviewing people about their experiences as crime victims. 
                  2. Victimless Crimes

                    Annotations:

                    • Acts that violate laws but involve individuals who don't consider themselves victims. 
                    1. Intellectual Property

                      Annotations:

                      • Crime that includes offenses such as software piracy, bootlegging musical recordings and movies, selling company trade secrets, and copyright violations.
                  3. Social Control

                    Annotations:

                    • The techniques and strategies that regulate people's behavior in society.  Purpose is to eliminate or reduce deviance. 
                    1. Informal Social Controls

                      Annotations:

                      • Because we genuinely care about the opinions of family members, friends, and teachers, ew try to live up to their expectations. 
                      1. Formal Social Control

                        Annotations:

                        • Exists outside of the individual to regulate social behavior. E.g. Judge, policeman
                        1. Sanctions

                          Annotations:

                          • Punishments or rewards for obeying or violating a norm.
                          1. Positive

                            Annotations:

                            • Rewards for a desirable behavior. Include a variety of social expressions: Smiling, hugging, "Congrats!"
                            1. Negative

                              Annotations:

                              • Punishments that convey disapproval for violating a norm. E.g. frowns, gossip, fines, arrests, etc. 
                          2. Functionalism
                            1. Anomie

                              Annotations:

                              • The condition in which people are unsure of how to behave because o absent, conflicting, or confusing social norms. (Durkheim concept)
                              1. Strain Theory

                                Annotations:

                                • The idea that people may engage in deviant behavior when they experience a conflict between goals and the means available to obtain the goals. 
                                1. 1. Conform

                                  Annotations:

                                  • Most of us aren't deviant when we face social strain, many of us conform by working harder and longer to become successful.
                                  1. 2. Innovation

                                    Annotations:

                                    • People have endorsed the cultural goal of economic success but turn to illegitimate means, especially crime, to achieve their goal.  -As a result, people steal much more in poverty stricken areas. 
                                    1. 3. Ritualism

                                      Annotations:

                                      • Live up to the go-with-the-flow attitude. Don't expect unordinary success, but take normal means of staying afloat (getting education, experience, etc.)
                                      1. 4. Retreatism

                                        Annotations:

                                        • People have rejected both the goals and the means of success.
                                        1. 5. Rebellion

                                          Annotations:

                                          • Feel so alienated that they want to change the social structure entirely by substituting new goals and means for the original ones. 
                                      2. Conflict Theory
                                        1. White-collar Crime

                                          Annotations:

                                          • Illegal activities committed by high-status individuals in the course of their occupation. 
                                          1. Occupational Crimes

                                            Annotations:

                                            • Crimes committed in the workplace by individuals acting solely in their own personal interest. -E.g.-People working for the Veterans Administration giving unalledged money to their relatives for graduate courses. 
                                            1. Cybercrime

                                              Annotations:

                                              • White-collar crimes that are conducted online.
                                            2. Corporate (Organizational) Crimes

                                              Annotations:

                                              • White-collar crimes committed by executives to benefit themselves and their companies. -E.g.-False advertising, tax evasion, etc.
                                              1. Organized Crime

                                                Annotations:

                                                • Activities of individuals and groups that supply illegal goods and services for profit.  E.g.-Drug distribution, prostitution, etc. 
                                                1. Not Criminalized
                                                  1. Minimal Enforcement

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • Xerox-$22 million in sanctions for $1.4 billion gained in the crime. 
                                                    1. Priviledge & Corruption
                                                    2. Feminism
                                                      1. Symbolic Interactionism
                                                        1. Differential Association

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • People learn deviance through interaction, especially with significant others.  -E.g. Zach (natural mother's influence), Uncle Matt's son. -47% of state prisoners have a parent or other close relative that has been incarcerated.
                                                          1. Labeling Theory

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • A perspective which holds that society's reaction to behavior is a major factor in defining oneself or others as deviant. -E.g. Men-Hypersexuality  Women-Binge eaters.
                                                            1. Primary Deviance

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • Initial violation of a norm or a law.  E.g. Not attending a funeral, stealing, or even murder. 
                                                              1. Secondary Deviance

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • Rule-breaking behavior that people adopt in response to the reactions of others.  -The more that people engage in deviant behavior, the more that they will accept the label associated with the behavior. -E.g. Kid smoking marijuana is labeled as a "druggie."
                                                              2. Criminal Justice System

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • The government agencies-including the police, courts, and prisons-that are charged with enforcing laws, passing judgment on offenders, and changing criminal behavior. 
                                                                1. Crime Control Model

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  • An approach that believes that crime rates increase when offenders don't fear apprehension or punishment. -Sentencing, Incarceration, Capital Punishment.
                                                                  1. Hot Spots

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • Areas of high criminal activity.
                                                                    1. Rehabilitation
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