Media and Society Part 2

charlotte.cranny
Mind Map by charlotte.cranny, updated more than 1 year ago
charlotte.cranny
Created by charlotte.cranny over 6 years ago
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Second part tp audiences - media and society.

Resource summary

Media and Society Part 2
  1. AUDIENCES
    1. POWERFUL MESSAGES VS. POWERFUL USERS
      1. Film industry started in 1920's - beginning of passive audience
        1. Idea that media = cause + effect
          1. This led to idea of propaganda
        2. 1930'a - media became realistic and causes moral panics.

          Annotations:

          • http://www.slideshare.net/kimberleyfinn/moral-panic http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/21051/1/JNC-2013-Chapter-24-Luce.pdf
          1. Audiences can act irrationally - even now!
            1. E.G. terrorism, mods vs rockers, big Kim K bums, One D Zayn leaving helpline
            2. Stanley Cohen

              Annotations:

              • http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/21051/1/JNC-2013-Chapter-24-Luce.pdf
          2. HYPODERMIC NEEDLE THEORY
            1. Incredibly outdated! Developed in 1930's
              1. Idea that the whole audience reacts to media in exactly the same way
                1. Media has a direct, powerful effect on the audience
                  1. Powerful media against a weak audience
                  2. A passive audience accepts the messages being spoon fed to them with no opinion or experience on the matter.
                    1. Media is a 'threat' according to this theory
                    2. ACTIVE AUDIENCES
                      1. Opposes claims made by mass audience theories
                        1. Audiences make their own meanings out of the media, getting involved with the messages often subconsciously.
                          1. An individual's own social and personal contexts effect this
                          2. Audiences are still influenced by the media but have more power over what, who and when.
                            1. Idea that people are vulnerable and need to be shielded from media
                            2. USES & GRATIFICATIONS THEORY
                              1. Blumler and Katz - 1940's
                                1. What audiences do with the media...
                                  1. Different audiences use media in different ways
                                    1. Aud is heterogeneous
                                      1. Aud is powerful
                                      2. Uses the media to fulfil certain needs
                                        1. Personal Identity
                                          1. Comparing yourself to role models and finding similarity and comfort in aspiring to be them
                                            1. Having the same values as others
                                            2. Personal Relationships
                                              1. Decide to get involved, discuss media, talk to peers.
                                                1. Allows you to conform to certain social rings/groups/classes
                                                2. Survelliance
                                                  1. Acquiring info and gaining knowledge and education.
                                                  2. Escapism
                                                    1. Distraction from reality
                                                3. Criticisms
                                                  1. Public have no control over what the media shows
                                                    1. Idea that WE use the media for certain needs does not explain the power the media has over us.
                                                    2. Does the audience have free will over how media effects them?
                                                      1. Hegemony - certain newspapers support certain political parties.
                                                  2. ENCODING/DECODING THEORY
                                                    1. Stuart Hall - 1970's
                                                      1. Media ENcode the message, audience DEcode message
                                                        1. Audiences decode messages in three ways...
                                                          1. Dominant
                                                            1. Consumer takes meaning directly and decodes exactly the same as encoding.
                                                              1. No misunderstanding of producer and consumer as they are from similar backgrounds 'theoretically'
                                                              2. Negotiated
                                                                1. Acknowledging the dominant message, but are not willing to completely accept it the way the encoder has intended.
                                                                  1. Audience modify this according to own experiences and interests
                                                                2. Oppositional
                                                                  1. Audience's social background means they are directly opposed to the dominant code but understand the meaning.
                                                                    1. Usually reject message
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