The Basics of Complex adaptive systems theory

dsaele
Mind Map by dsaele, updated more than 1 year ago
dsaele
Created by dsaele over 6 years ago
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Midterm FRST 201 Mind Map on The Basics of Complex adaptive systems theory, created by dsaele on 10/21/2015.

Resource summary

The Basics of Complex adaptive systems theory
  1. Novel Ecosystems
    1. As climate changes, there will be an increasing number of novel ecosystems

      Annotations:

      • ecosystems wit no historical analogue 
      1. An ecosystem will be altered by directional environmental drivers or the addition or loss of an important species (biotic changes)
        1. New state: internal restructuring due to new biotic and abiotic interactions further alters community compositions

          Annotations:

          •  though changes in abundances or species losses, through changes in biogeochemical interactions (resulting in novel ecosystem) 
        2. New silvicultural challenges are arising with changing human desires, loss species and climate change
          1. Now we should
            1. Manage forests to provide a variety of desired ecossytem goods and services at an acceptable cost
              1. Ensure ability of managed forest to adapt to diverse and unexpected future conditions
                1. Prescribe and promote novel ecosystems
                  1. Increase ecosystem resilience and adaptability, and promote desirable outcomes
                    1. Paradigm shift in forestry to complexity science
                      1. Viewing forest as complex adaptive systems can provide silviculture a new conceptual framework
                        1. Managing for complexity involves thinking careful about types of interactive processes that occur within forests and how they enable forests to self-organize with minimal intervention after disturbance
                        2. Increase resilience to stress
                          1. Much of the order/pattern we see in the world comes, not from top down control, but from local-level (bottom-up) interactions among system components (self-organization).
                  2. Characteristics of a complex adaptive system (CAS) ecosystem
                    1. has many parts that interact
                      1. Interactions among the parts cause the behaviour of the whole to be more than the sum of its parts
                      2. Web of interactions and interdependencies

                        Annotations:

                        • among components and with the environment, which channels energy and allowing ecosystems to self-organize, function and evolve. 
                        1. Feedbacks

                          Annotations:

                          • Occur wen organisms receive feedback from their environment and modify their behaviour accordingly, allowing control over the destiny of the ecosystem,
                          1. Positive feedback

                            Annotations:

                            • Mutualisms
                            1. Negative feedback

                              Annotations:

                              • competition, or density-dependant control; behaviour changes in response to resource limitations
                              1. Fast-forward mechanism

                                Annotations:

                                • Trees produce waxes to prevent water loss during drought; resins to pitch out bark beetles that bore into the bark 
                              2. Sel-orginzed from the bottom up

                                Annotations:

                                • Complex estruture that emerges out of interactions and feedbacks among the parts 
                                1. Synergy: Emergent properties

                                  Annotations:

                                  • The whole is greater than it's parts
                                  1. Stability

                                    Annotations:

                                    • Means that changes are maintained within certain bounds, and key patterns and processses are protected and maintained 
                                    1. Productivity and stability

                                      Annotations:

                                      • of ecosystem comes from complex interactions among the many parts, and the positive and negative feedbacks between those parts
                                    2. Diffuse boundaries

                                      Annotations:

                                      • No skin; local ecosystems are part of an interacting network of ecosystem that compose landscapes, region, the earth. 
                                      1. Non-euqilibirum

                                        Annotations:

                                        • Because the boundaries are diffuse; system is open to the outside 
                                        1. Hierarchical

                                          Annotations:

                                          • Each ecosystem comprises numerous smaller systems and at the same time is part of a hierarchy of larger ecosystems
                                          1. Adaptive

                                            Annotations:

                                            • resulting from the adaptation and evolution of organisms that comprise the community 
                                            1. Indetermined

                                              Annotations:

                                              • because organisms evolve in an somewhat ordered yet random fashion 
                                              1. Non linear relationships/reposnses

                                                Annotations:

                                                • resource limit on photosynthesis
                                                • making relationships somewhat unpredictable with surprising consequences 
                                                1. Non-linear réponses

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  • can have threshold changes with non-catastrophic reponses, where the response can be reversible if the conditions change back to initial conditions; 
                                                  1. Non-catastrophic

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • where the response can be reversible if the conditions change back to initial conditions
                                                    1. Catastrophic reponses

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • where there is a bifurcation (split) into a new state that is not reversible when conditions change back to initially conditions 
                                                  2. System memory

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • genes or structure (CWD remaining from previous disturbances
                                                    1. Sensitive to initial conditions

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • i.e. following disturbance
                                                      1. Viewing and managing forest as complex adaptive systems
                                                        1. Uncertain future conditions

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • Implies allowing forest development to follow a variety of possible paths
                                                          1. Ill-defined boundaries

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • outside influences inherent chanracteritcis of forest ecosystem dynamics 
                                                            1. Never at equilibrium

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • Adopt view that ecosystem structures and process are continually changing and this change is important 
                                                              1. Self-regulated

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • Occurs through positive and negative feedback loops; requires new multi-scale approaches 
                                                                1. Develop unexpected properties

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  • iportant factor in ecosystem resilience -creativity 
                                                                  1. Affected by initial conditions/previous states

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • remember previous states (i.e.  coppice systems, present day structural retention) 
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