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Identity

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identity mindmap
rosie_howes
Mind Map by rosie_howes, updated more than 1 year ago
rosie_howes
Created by rosie_howes over 6 years ago
163
1

Resource summary

Identity
  1. What is identity?
    1. Social identity: How your identity is shown in society & by others. Can define identity by things like gender/age but they're also personal things like name/accomplishments/personal traits. Looked at by social action as it's the individuals experience.
      1. Identity is also a product of your experiences (positive & negative) through socialisation. It's formed by family/peers/education/media/religion/workplace.
        1. Structuralists look at culture (Way of life) with a collection of norms/values, status/role.
        2. Some argue your identity is fixed on your gender/class/age/ethnicity
          1. Others argue it's a more active process
          2. Nowadays we construct our own identity using the media for ideas & deciding who we want to be.
            1. What we buy and wear/the way we look is how we construct our own identity and make a statement to others about who we are.
          3. Ethnicity
            1. ETHNICITY RELATES TO THE SHARING OF SIMILAR SOCIALISATION & CULTURE WITHIN A GROUP OF PEOPLE IN AN AREA. IT GREATLY DIFFERS FROM RACE AS THAT'S CLASSIFIED BY PEOPLE'S BIOLOGICAL FEATURES (SKIN COLOUR)
              1. VIEWS ON ETHNICITY
                1. FEMINISM
                  1. Supporting equality of all females; ethnicity shouldn't divide them
                  2. MARXISM
                    1. Conflict between people due to ethnicity is needed, when there is equality
                      1. The 'ideal' ethnicity, which in most Western countries is white people, would be given the most power/given more benefits in society
                      2. FUNCTIONALISM
                        1. Society benefits all of any ethnicity
                          1. Certain ethnicities should remain on uneven grounds, as established decades ago, to keep society running smoothly
                          2. POSTMODERNISM
                            1. Equality is slowly improving
                              1. There're international movements for ethnic equality in Western countries (E.g. Black lives matter)
                            2. INTERACTION & ETHNICITY
                              1. LABELLING THEORY
                                1. Western cultures label those with an ethnicity they 'disagree with'
                                  1. These labels can be counted as racist slurs, & can be derogatory towards their entire ethnicity
                                    1. These become master statuses, & can become harmful stereotypes
                                    2. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT
                                      1. In communities of multiple ethnicities, many would keep to themselves
                                        1. If their community has dominating ethnicity, they would act more as their true selves
                                          1. Most areas, they would have to put on a front when in public to prevent harm.
                                          2. LOOKING GLASS SELF
                                            1. Ethnicity minorities would interact with others of different ethnicites often in society
                                              1. They would gather their perception on them based on their personal actions & their community's actions
                                                1. This would lead to them becoming withdrawn in public if they feel unsafe/isolated
                                              2. STUDIES
                                                1. HEWITT (2005) Studied the negative perception of multiculturalism. Attempts of ethnic equality had been met with anger from the white community, who view it as 'unfair'. White working-class people specifically were noted to defend their ethnicity from ethnic minorities. Complaints by the white 'have-nots' about the impact on them of the black 'have-nots'
                                                  1. WINSTON JAMES (1993) Experience of racism unified identities of African-Caribbeans. Their unified culture adopted the label 'black' to prevent racism in the UK.
                                                    1. JACOBSON (1997) From exlusionby white British society, Pakistanis adopt a strong Islamic identity. Young British Muslims find safety & security in their religious community. The religious identity would give thm a defence against racism.
                                                  2. Age
                                                    1. AGE RELATES TO CHRONOLOGY & STAGES, SUCH AS CHILDHOOD AND ADULTHOOD, IN A PERSON'S LIFETIME
                                                      1. AGE CAN BE IMPORTANT IN CULTURE/LAW, CELEBRATIONS ARE UNIQUE IN CULTURES INTERNATIONALLY
                                                      2. VIEWS ON AGE
                                                        1. FEMINISM
                                                          1. Women are judged by factors such as age
                                                            1. Society favours young & young-looking women over aged women
                                                            2. MARXISM
                                                              1. Ageist conflict is necessary along with togetherness
                                                                1. Adults have the most power, children are negatively treated in society; adults are benifitted most
                                                                2. FUNCTIONALISM
                                                                  1. Age has no matter on social benefits
                                                                    1. Children & adults shall remain with different treatment to benefit society
                                                                    2. POSTODERNISM
                                                                      1. More children are being taken seriously
                                                                        1. Younger people are taking over
                                                                          1. Technology is advanced by young people
                                                                        2. INTERACTIONISM & AGE
                                                                          1. LABELLING THEORY
                                                                            1. Youth tend to break away from expectations by older generations
                                                                              1. They're labelled 'deviants', among other names, if they do not follow any roles set for them
                                                                                1. Self-fulfilling prophecy may occur; they would adopt their new labels & act as so
                                                                                2. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT
                                                                                  1. Young people act respectful, civil in public; possibly as a front
                                                                                    1. Many young people would have different personal aspects for their different relationship
                                                                                    2. LOOKING GLASS SELF
                                                                                      1. Children & young people would look up to older people in their lives
                                                                                        1. As adults are of a higher status, children would most likely take in their views of them on aspects like behaviour
                                                                                          1. They would improve those aspects, if they thought it would improve their perception from others close to them
                                                                                        2. STUDIES
                                                                                          1. POSTMAN (1982) The creation of the 'innocent child'. Rise in adults shielding their children from dangers when they're young (like sexuality/death). As media * technology emerged & spreads, the innocent side of childhood is disppearing
                                                                                            1. BRADLEY (1996) Middle age has a higher status in society than youth/old age. Middle aged people have more power & control over people as some are the leaders of countries
                                                                                              1. FEATHERSTONE & HEPWORTH (2005) Media can positively change attitudes of ageing as well as negatively. More positive images may emerge as population ages. It's shown through 'retro' fashions, mimicking trends from eras such as the 70's/80's and formerly popular music acts reforming/touring
                                                                                            2. Class
                                                                                              1. CLASS: A social system used more than decades ago that separated people due to different class levels. Class is determined by wealth/income/occupation. Children are under their parents' class until they start earning a living wage.
                                                                                                1. VIEWS ON CLASS
                                                                                                  1. FEMINISM
                                                                                                    1. Gender inequality: women earn less & gain less power than men.
                                                                                                      1. Working class women perform unpaid labour (Running a household)
                                                                                                      2. MARXISM
                                                                                                        1. Conflict between social classes caused by power.
                                                                                                          1. Society benefits rich & powerful: means upper class is benefitted most
                                                                                                            1. Popular culture distracts the lower classes from the class inequality
                                                                                                            2. FUNCTIONALISM
                                                                                                              1. Society benefits everyone of all social classes
                                                                                                                1. The class system/roles in classes are needed to keep society running smoothly
                                                                                                                2. POSTMODERNISM
                                                                                                                  1. Modern life doesn't focus greatly on class status
                                                                                                                    1. As diversity increases in how to gain wealth/income, the class system is dismissed
                                                                                                                  2. INTERACTIONISM & CLASS
                                                                                                                    1. LABELLING THEORY
                                                                                                                      1. Social class is labelled by one's wealth/occupation
                                                                                                                        1. Acting away from the usual activities enjoyed by one's class could label them a type of devient
                                                                                                                          1. If a change in wealth/occupation occurs, they would be labelled differently
                                                                                                                          2. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT
                                                                                                                            1. Those who are considered upper class would be expected to act a certain way
                                                                                                                              1. This would be seen as social gatherings/meetings, in their privacy, they may enjoy activities accepted best by the lower social classes
                                                                                                                              2. LOOKING GLASS SELF
                                                                                                                                1. Some people are comfortable in their social classes, whereas some think about how they'r e percieved
                                                                                                                                  1. They conform to stereotypical activities/aspects to 'keep up appearances' this may involve revising their perceptions of themselves
                                                                                                                                2. STUDIES
                                                                                                                                  1. MACKINTOSH & MOONEY (2004) Upper class' invisibility due to social closure. They separate themselves from the 'visible' (middle-class classes). This is through private education, exclusive clubs & uncommonly known acivites
                                                                                                                                    1. SKEGGS (1997) Studied working-class women who are often dismissed by others of higher status due to their class. Women would make themselves appear more 'respectable' especially in how they dress/decorate their homes
                                                                                                                                      1. OFFE (1985) People don't share an experience of full-time work anymore (a main focus in social class). Work is no longer a necessary feature of identity, people can form their identity without having to focus on class/occupation.
                                                                                                                                    2. Sexuality
                                                                                                                                      1. SEXUALITY: Label given due to who on a catagory of gender one would find sexually or romantically attractive. The norm in society is to be geterosexual but we are becoming more accepting of homosexuality.
                                                                                                                                        1. STUDIES
                                                                                                                                          1. WEEKS (1991) 'sexual identification is a strange thing' it's more complex. People may/may not participate in sexual activity with those they're attracted to.
                                                                                                                                            1. RICH (1980) Women's sexuality is oppressed by the males. This is objectification. Women took part in 'compulasary heterosexuality' they're sociallised into a heterosexual role for men.
                                                                                                                                              1. MCINTOSH (1996) Claiming that homosexual men fill a 'homosexual role' in Western cultures.
                                                                                                                                              2. VIEWS ON SEXUALITY
                                                                                                                                                1. FEMINISM
                                                                                                                                                  1. Heteronormativity is still the 'norm'
                                                                                                                                                    1. Women are sexualised for men in the media
                                                                                                                                                    2. MARXISM
                                                                                                                                                      1. Society is distracted by popular culture; distracts from issues with non-heterosexual individuals
                                                                                                                                                        1. Conflict Theory; heteronormativity vs diverse sexual orientations
                                                                                                                                                        2. FUNCTIONALISM
                                                                                                                                                          1. Roles ensure society running smoothly; this can include the role of heteronormativity
                                                                                                                                                            1. The traditional nuclear family (1 mother, 1 father) is believed to be best
                                                                                                                                                            2. POSTMODERNISM
                                                                                                                                                              1. Sexual diversity establishing among society
                                                                                                                                                                1. Heteronormativity is breaking down; more rights to non-geterosexual individuals
                                                                                                                                                              2. INTERACTIONISM & SEXUALITY
                                                                                                                                                                1. LABELLING THEORY
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Due to heteronormativity, people who are 'out' as non-heteroseual are given the label of their orientation
                                                                                                                                                                    1. This can be seen as negative label & can become their master status
                                                                                                                                                                      1. They would only be recognised as sexuality
                                                                                                                                                                      2. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Many homosexual individuals would either conform to their social stereotypes or hide them if they relate to such
                                                                                                                                                                          1. If they are not 'out' they would create a false persona in society (their front region) and only acknowledge their true selves in private (their back region)
                                                                                                                                                                          2. LOOKING GLASS SELF
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Non-heterosexuality is becoming more acceptable in Western cultures, but many non-heterosexual individuals still would think of how they're perceived by others
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Young individuals would examine how everyone uses sexuality-relevant labels like 'gay' & view themselves (if they identity themselves) with that meaning
                                                                                                                                                                                1. If the meaning is negative, they would think of that aspect of themselves negatively
                                                                                                                                                                            2. Gender
                                                                                                                                                                              1. GENDER is a social construct created to set labels,norms and values to a person because of their biological sex.
                                                                                                                                                                                1. MASCULINITY: AGGRESSIVE (educational failure) & HEGEMONIC (middle class masculinity, socially desireable).
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. STUDIES
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. PARSONS (1955 = dated) females have an expressive role in family, natural but reinforced by socialism. These roles are considered functional for society and family.
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. MAC AN GHAILL (1994 = dated) focuses on hyper-masculinity among males (e.g. wearing nail varnish)
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. JACKSON (2006) women adopting 'laddishness' a form of masculinity. These women labelled 'ladettes' perform risky acts like smoking.
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. INTERACTIONISM & GENDER
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. LABELLING THEORY
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Gender roles are to be followed
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Rejecting roles can allow negative labelling for both male/females
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Labels could link to such aspects of one, such as their abilities or sexuality
                                                                                                                                                                                                2. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. People are convinced that they must put on a persona to be accepted into society
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. For females, this is mainly appearance-wise, they are expected by society to dress up, wear makeup etc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. For males, this is more in the sense of their actions, they are expected to act 'masculine' in order to be accepted
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. LOOKING GLASS SELF
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Women are persuaded by agencies of socialisation that they must appeal in a certain way
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. They judge by how others perceive them; they change aspects of themselves in order to 'fit in' and to be liked
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. VIEWS ON GENDER
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. FEMINISM
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Gender equality doesn't exist, society is male dominated
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Secondary socialisation can be harmful to women (cause body image issues)
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. MARXISM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Popular & mass culture distract society from gender inequality
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Conflict theory: Gender inequality is necessary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Society benefits those with power; in a patriarchal society, that would be males getting the benefits
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. FUNCTIONALISM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Society benefits everyone in different ways, no matter their gender
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Gender roles are vital in society; they ensure that society is run smoothly & at its best
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. POSTMODERNISM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Norms & values in gender are always changing; equality is improving
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Gender diversity (rise of transgender & non-binary identity) is becoming visible; altering modern day's gender roles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. NATIONALITY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. NATIONALITY IS THE PART OF THE IDENTITY THAT DETERMINES YOUR BIRTHPLACE & YOUR CITIZENSHIP, NATIONAL IDENTITY IS REPRESENTED THROUGH WAYS OF PATRIOTISM.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. VIEWS ON NATIONALITY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. FEMINISM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Nationality can determine how women are treated in their cultures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Some national traditions are in favour of males, specifically in patriarchal societies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. MARXISM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Society benefits those with higher wealth/power, populations of less economically developed countries wouldn't gain many benefits
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Conflict between nationalities keeps social balance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. FUNCTIONALISM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Society benefits all in different ways internationally
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. How nationalities are seen/treated should remain; roles are vital to help society
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. POSTMODERNISM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Nationality isn't important a matter as previously
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. People of various nationalities live in different countries; this is allowed when legally able to stay
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. INTERACTIONISM & NATIONALITY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. LABELLING THEORY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Based on stereotypes, people of a certain nationality may be generalised under labels
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Due to the self-fulfilling prophecy, they may act on how they're labelled
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Those of a certain nationality, when in their own area (town/city)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. This would mainly be as a front (in private) they may not act proud of their nationality
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. They may feel left out if they don't show their pride at appropriate times
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. LOOKING GLASS SELF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. People, if living in areas outside their birthplace, would change how they act
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. They would do this if they gather people around them perceive them to be too 'different' to fit in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. STUDIES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. ANDERSON (1983) A national identity is socially constructed; an 'imagined community'. This is through symbols (flags) & rituals (national holidays). Media & modern printing technology (newspaper) encourage the unity of nationality. British are praised higher than other in the media during conflicts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. KUMAR (2003) The English national identity is elusive/unclear. English identities have been diluted by the expanding 'Britishness' identity around England
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. SARDAR (2002) The world is experiencing a global identity crisis. Social divisions have been broken. The values of 'Englishness' aren't followed by the majority of the population = struggle forming an English identity. An identity is formed by embracing global diversity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. HYBRID IDENTITIES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. HYBRID IDENTITY IS AN IDENTITY FORMED WITH ASPECTS MADE FROM A MIXTURE (IT'S MAINLY IN ONE'S NATIONALITY/ETHNICITY)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. VIEWS ON HYBRID IDENTITY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. FEMINISM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Hybrid identities spread equality
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. This can include hybrid gender identities, where people can possess masculine/feminine features
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. MARXISM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Society benefits those with the most power; having hybrid identities, where 1 part of the hybrid aspect is the strongest, allowed them to gather that privilege
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. There would be conflict; people may disagree with the idea of hybrid identities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. FUNCTIONALISM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Roles should be kept to allow society to continue smoothly; this would argue against hybrid identities because it combines roles, creating a new concept
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Society would benefit all, no matter how people identify themselves
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. POSTMODERNISM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Hybrid identities are becoming more common in society
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. It abandons old roles set in the era of modernity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. INTERACTIONISM & HYBRID INDEITIES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. LABELLING THEORY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Labels are created by those identifying with hybrid identities (British/Asian = Brasian)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. They may be stereotyped of one aspect of the hybridity; one they would link closer to appearance-wise
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. They may portray characteristics publicly of how they're possibly seen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Act as their true selves privately
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. LOOKING GLASS SELF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Many people may not be able to understand hybridity easily
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Those who identify with a hybrid identity would act as their 'obvious' aspect of the identity to fit in with others
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. STUDIES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. NAYAK (2003) Coined the term of 'white wannabes'. This term is used primarily to describe what British males who embrace black hip-hop culture. Mainly through their appearance, characteristics, gestures. E.G. Ali G
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