Chapter 2: MCU Archi and Embed C

Meixi Lim
Mind Map by Meixi Lim, updated more than 1 year ago
Meixi Lim
Created by Meixi Lim about 5 years ago
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mind map for ict2104 chapter 2

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Chapter 2: MCU Archi and Embed C
1 Von Neumann Architecture
1.1 Stored program computer
1.2 Stores program data and instructions data in the same memory (RAM)
1.3 CPU / Processor: Central Processing Unit
1.4 Memory: Stores data and program
1.5 I/O / Peripherals: For CPU to interface to external world.
1.6 Address bus: Determine which location
1.7 Data Bus: Determine the data size
1.8 Control Bus: Determine the type of instruction (read / write)
2 I/O and Interfacing with Externals
2.1 Connection
2.1.1 Loosely Coupled: For external interface
2.1.1.1 via external bus
2.1.1.2 via network
2.1.1.3 via port
2.1.2 Tightly Coupled: For internal interface
2.1.2.1 via fast internal bus
2.2 Data Transfer
2.2.1 Serial
2.2.1.1 Transmit data bit by bit
2.2.1.2 Requires at least 2 wires to support bidirectional communcation
2.2.1.3 Low speed but is the standard for external interface
2.2.2 Parallel
2.2.2.1 Transmit data multiple bits at a time
2.2.2.2 Require multiple interconnections and additional synchronization mechanism
2.2.2.3 Fast but limited to short distance, mostly used for internal interfacing
2.3 OS
2.3.1 Multitasking: Perform more than one task
2.3.2 Multithreading: Different parts of same program executed simultaneously
2.3.3 Multiprocessing: Work appears to be simultaneous because of speed of proceesor
2.3.4 CPU Speed: Measure of number of instructions CPU can carry out per second
2.3.4.1 2.5GHz CPU: 2.5 billion cycles / second
3 Microcontroller Selection
3.1 Key Selection Criteria
3.1.1 CPU computation requirements
3.1.2 Number of I/O available
3.1.3 Support in terms of tools and software libraries availability
3.1.4 Cost
3.1.5 MCU Manufacturer
3.1.6 Power Consumption
3.2 Memory Options
3.2.1 Types: Masked, EEPROM, Flash, RAM, FRAM
3.2.2 Size: Can have a wide range
3.3 Internal Peripherals
4 MSP430
4.1 CPU Block Diagram
4.1.1 PC: Address of next instruction to be executed
4.1.2 SP (20 bit): Points to RAM reserve to store program context so that it can return after subroutine / interrupt processing.
4.1.3 SR: Contains a set of flags (C, Z, N, V), GIE and MCU mode selection bits
4.1.4 Constant Generator: 6 most frequently used values
4.1.5 General purpose registers: 12
4.2 Key Features
4.2.1 Ultra Low Power
4.2.2 Increased Performance
4.2.3 Innovative Features
4.2.4 16-bit RISC computer based on Von Neumann architecture
4.3 Memory: Sequential list of addressable storage elements
4.3.1 Program / Instruction: A sequence of instructions
4.3.2 Not possible to differentiate instruction and data
4.3.3 Data: Values instructions operate on
5 Embedded C
5.1 Identifiers
5.1.1 const: Constant; stored in program section memory
5.1.2 extern: To make reference to variables declared elsewhere
5.1.3 static: Preserves the variable even after function/block
5.1.4 volatile: To allow changes of variable by an event outside program i.e. ADC
5.2 Directives
5.2.1 include: to include a file as part of source code
5.2.2 define: substitute a name by corresponding expression
5.2.3 pragma: compiler specific directive; instructs compiler to use implementation dependent features
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