We have become reliant on
electricity to support our modern
lifestyle and arguably for our survival.
The core reasons for our
demand for electricity are;
1) It is portable -easily
transported using cables.
2) It may be transferred
into many different forms.
Heat- heating, cooking
Light- lighting, signals
Also: Nuclear, Elastic,
Chemical, Sound and
Electricity is a secondary energy
source because it must be
transferred from another natural
source. Natural sources are known
as primary energy sources.
Primary Energy Sources
Renewable- used many times and
will never run out; Wind, Solar,
Wave (Hydroelectric), Biofuel (wood,
faeces, corpses). (And Geothermal-
heat from underground).
Non renewable- used once only and
will run out; Fossil fuels (Coal, Oil and
Gas), and Nuclear.
We must use a range of sources to
ensure security of supply.
Avoiding: No wind, No sun,
Conflict over scarce resources,
Use of crops for electricity.
Lesson 2: Consequences
of Energy Demand
We can expect energy demand to continue to
increase because: 1) Population will continue to
increase. There will be more consumers demanding
more energy. (E.g. more people, more homes, more
light bulbs). 2) New technologies are developed hat
need an energy supply. (E.g. tablet PC, robotics).
It could be argued
that technology will
this strategy alone is
Economy: If there is a shortage of
energy, then the energy we do have
will be more expensive, meaning that
people may be more likely to find
themselves in financial difficulty, due
to larger energy bills. People need
electricity to do their jobs/ learn at
school. Without electricity many
won't be able to work, and, as a
result, may earn less money.
reduces tax revenue, so the
government cannot spend that
lost money to support services.
Further impact of poor finance
on lifestyle increase risk of
unemployment. Envy---> theft?
Waste: If there is a shortage of
energy, then energy companies
will use more damaging
methods (Fracking) to obtain
energy. They may feel the need
to dig deeper for energy. Also
burning fossil fuels increases
the Greenhouse Effect.
Environment: Climate change
could make winters colder, so
there will be more energy
demand because people will
need more energy to keep warm.
Politics: The government are unsure
about energy as they need to use more
'low carbon' and renewable energy to
meet environmental targets. Gas is
cheap but it produces carbon dioxide to
turn into energy. Nuclear is 'low carbon'
but it is non renewable. The government
say that energy bills will be more
expensive in the short term.
disagree on how to
Lesson 3: Nuclear
Nuclear fuels emit ionising radiation so;
They can kill living cells, causing radiation
burns. They can mutate cells by causing
chemical changes in DNA, leading to the
formation of tumours -------> cancer.
Hazards from careless use: Leaks of
radioactive material into the surrounding
environment. There have been cases of
explosions ta badly designed reactors in
Irradiation- Exposure to radiation from a
source outside the body.
Contamination- Exposure to radiation
from a source that has entered the body.
Lesson 4: Energy
Advantages: No dangerous
solid waste. A tried and tested,
safe method. Cheap to build.
Disadvantages: Air pollution containing carbon
dioxide, which worsens the Greenhouse Effect and
acid rain. Expensive to fuel.
Advantages: No carbon dioxide emissions. No
ongoing fuel cost
Disadvantages: Dangerous nuclear waste. High risk
of accident. Expensive to build (and initially fuel).
Disadvantages: Needs a lot of space. May not look very
nice, so people may not want them on their roof. Relys
on sunny weather. Can't supply power all the time.
Advantages: No air pollution or carbon dioxide emissions.
Can be put on top of buildings (this takes up less space). Not
very expensive. No expense for fuel. Unlimited.
Advantages: No harmful
pollution. No fuel cost.
Disadvantages: Relies on windy
weather (unreliable). Noisy and
ugly. Expensive to set up.
Advantages: No harmful pollution.
No fuel cost. Not very expensive.
Disadvantages: Relies on
waves (unreliable). Ugly.
Advantages: Reduces harmful pollution.
Can regrow more fuel as you need it.
Disadvantages: Manufacturing creates pollution.
Diverting crop use away from food.