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P3: Sustainable Energy

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GCSE GCSE Science Mind Map on P3: Sustainable Energy, created by Cara Dowling on 10/28/2015.
Cara Dowling
Mind Map by Cara Dowling, updated more than 1 year ago
Cara Dowling
Created by Cara Dowling over 6 years ago
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Resource summary

P3: Sustainable Energy
  1. Lesson 1: Energy Source and Demand
    1. We have become reliant on electricity to support our modern lifestyle and arguably for our survival.
      1. The core reasons for our demand for electricity are; 1) It is portable -easily transported using cables. 2) It may be transferred into many different forms.
        1. Heat- heating, cooking
          1. Light- lighting, signals
            1. Kinetic- washing machine, fridge
              1. Also: Nuclear, Elastic, Chemical, Sound and Gravitational Potential
              2. Electricity is a secondary energy source because it must be transferred from another natural source. Natural sources are known as primary energy sources.
                1. Primary Energy Sources
                  1. Renewable- used many times and will never run out; Wind, Solar, Wave (Hydroelectric), Biofuel (wood, faeces, corpses). (And Geothermal- heat from underground).
                    1. Non renewable- used once only and will run out; Fossil fuels (Coal, Oil and Gas), and Nuclear.
                    2. We must use a range of sources to ensure security of supply.
                      1. Avoiding: No wind, No sun, Conflict over scarce resources, Use of crops for electricity.
                      2. Lesson 2: Consequences of Energy Demand
                        1. We can expect energy demand to continue to increase because: 1) Population will continue to increase. There will be more consumers demanding more energy. (E.g. more people, more homes, more light bulbs). 2) New technologies are developed hat need an energy supply. (E.g. tablet PC, robotics).
                          1. It could be argued that technology will reduce demand through energy efficiency, however, this strategy alone is not sufficiently influential.
                            1. Economy: If there is a shortage of energy, then the energy we do have will be more expensive, meaning that people may be more likely to find themselves in financial difficulty, due to larger energy bills. People need electricity to do their jobs/ learn at school. Without electricity many won't be able to work, and, as a result, may earn less money.
                              1. Economical: Unemployment reduces tax revenue, so the government cannot spend that lost money to support services. Further impact of poor finance on lifestyle increase risk of unemployment. Envy---> theft?
                              2. Waste: If there is a shortage of energy, then energy companies will use more damaging methods (Fracking) to obtain energy. They may feel the need to dig deeper for energy. Also burning fossil fuels increases the Greenhouse Effect.
                                1. Environment: Climate change could make winters colder, so there will be more energy demand because people will need more energy to keep warm.
                                  1. Politics: The government are unsure about energy as they need to use more 'low carbon' and renewable energy to meet environmental targets. Gas is cheap but it produces carbon dioxide to turn into energy. Nuclear is 'low carbon' but it is non renewable. The government say that energy bills will be more expensive in the short term.
                                    1. Political: Politicians disagree on how to distribute scarce resources. More extreme policy likely; conspiracy theory, Military conflict over dwindling resources (Iraq).
                                  2. Lesson 3: Nuclear Power Debate
                                    1. Health Risks
                                      1. Nuclear fuels emit ionising radiation so; They can kill living cells, causing radiation burns. They can mutate cells by causing chemical changes in DNA, leading to the formation of tumours -------> cancer.
                                      2. Hazards from careless use: Leaks of radioactive material into the surrounding environment. There have been cases of explosions ta badly designed reactors in the past.
                                        1. Irradiation- Exposure to radiation from a source outside the body.
                                          1. Contamination- Exposure to radiation from a source that has entered the body.
                                          2. Lesson 4: Energy Options
                                            1. Fossil Fuels
                                              1. Advantages: No dangerous solid waste. A tried and tested, safe method. Cheap to build.
                                                1. Disadvantages: Air pollution containing carbon dioxide, which worsens the Greenhouse Effect and acid rain. Expensive to fuel.
                                                2. Nuclear
                                                  1. Advantages: No carbon dioxide emissions. No ongoing fuel cost
                                                    1. Disadvantages: Dangerous nuclear waste. High risk of accident. Expensive to build (and initially fuel).
                                                    2. Solar Power
                                                      1. Disadvantages: Needs a lot of space. May not look very nice, so people may not want them on their roof. Relys on sunny weather. Can't supply power all the time.
                                                        1. Advantages: No air pollution or carbon dioxide emissions. Can be put on top of buildings (this takes up less space). Not very expensive. No expense for fuel. Unlimited.
                                                        2. Wind Power
                                                          1. Advantages: No harmful pollution. No fuel cost.
                                                            1. Disadvantages: Relies on windy weather (unreliable). Noisy and ugly. Expensive to set up.
                                                            2. Wave Power
                                                              1. Advantages: No harmful pollution. No fuel cost. Not very expensive.
                                                                1. Disadvantages: Relies on waves (unreliable). Ugly.
                                                                2. Biofuel
                                                                  1. Advantages: Reduces harmful pollution. Can regrow more fuel as you need it.
                                                                    1. Disadvantages: Manufacturing creates pollution. Diverting crop use away from food.
                                                                  2. Lesson 5: Generating Elecricity
                                                                    1. For wind or wave;
                                                                      1. Kinetic ------->------ Kinetic ------>------ Electrical
                                                                        1. Wind/Wave
                                                                          1. Turbine
                                                                            1. Generator
                                                                          2. Boiler: Water is boiled into steam by burning a fossil fuel or using a nuclear fuel.
                                                                            1. Turbine: Is rotated by moving steam
                                                                              1. Generator: Is rotated by the turbine and produces electricity.
                                                                            2. Electric current is 'induced' in a generator by passing a magnet close to a wire coil. Increasing the speed of the movement or the number of coils of wire increases the voltage.
                                                                            3. Lesson 6: Joules, Watts and Kilowatt-Hours
                                                                              1. Power- A measure of the rate (speed) that a device transfers energy.
                                                                                1. Power(Watts)= Energy transferred (Joules) Time taken (seconds)
                                                                                  1. P=E/T
                                                                                2. Domestic Energy Use
                                                                                  1. Energy= Power X Time
                                                                                    1. (Kilowatt-Hours)
                                                                                      1. (Kilowatts)
                                                                                        1. (Hours)
                                                                                        2. Cost= Energy X Price
                                                                                          1. (Pence)
                                                                                            1. (KWH)
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