Lifestyle and Disease

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Biology Topic one Edexcel

Talentless Academic
Created by Talentless Academic almost 6 years ago
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Lifestyle and Disease
1 Water
1.1 Electrons pulled towards oxygen leaving one side slightly Positive.
1.2 The unshared electrons in the oxygen give it slight negative charge.
1.3 Giving water a dipolar nature.
1.4 neg- chared oxy atoms will attract posi hydro atoms and vise versa this is called hydrogen bonding.
1.5 Makes water cohesive helps water flow great for transporting substances.
1.6 good solvent posi - neg ion and neg- posi ion eg NaCl.
2 Carbohydrates
2.1 Consist of monosaccarides , 5 carbons.
2.1.1 joined together through glycosidic bonds formed in condensation reaction. Hydrogen atom from one mono bonds with a Hydroxyl group on the other. Reverse is hydrolysis water breaks the glycosodic bond apart.
2.2 Maltose formed from 2 Alpha glucose. 1-2 Gly Bond
2.2.1 Lactose formed from beta glucose and galactose 1-4 Gly bond. Sucrose - Alpha glucose and fructose 1-2
2.3 Starch - Mixture of two PolySac's Amylose and Amylopectin 1-4, 1-6.
2.4 Glycogen Alpha 1-4, 1-6. Loads of Side branches.
3 Lipids
3.1 Triglycerides= 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids with long hydrocarbon chain attached.
3.1.1 formed in condensation reactions simular to Mono. forms ester bonds.
3.2 Saturated
3.2.1 Dont have double bonds.
3.3 Unsaturated
3.3.1 have double bonds cause a kink lower melting point.
4 The heart blood vessels
4.1 Heart.
4.1.1 Left side pumps oxygenated blood. Right pumps De-oxy to lungs. SL Stop blood flowing back Cords Attack AV to Ventricle to stop them being forced up into the atria when ventircles contract.
4.1.2 Left ventricle is thicker cause it has to pump blood to the whole body. Right ven only to lungs.
4.1.3 Ventricles thicker than atria cause they push blood out of heart atria only short to ven
4.1.4 AV Vavles stop blood flowing back.
4.2 Vavles prevent blood flowing back
4.2.1 High press behind = open High press infront = shut
5 Cardiac Cycle.
5.1 3 Stages
5.1.1 1. Ventricular diastole, atrial systole. Atria contract decreasing volume of chamber and increasing pressure inside the blood pushes into the ventricles.
5.1.2 2.Ventricular systole, atrial diastole Atria relax, ventricles contract increase their pressure blood press is higher in ven then atria thus AV close. goes through Pulmonary artery.
5.1.3 3. Ventricular&atrial diastole Ventricles and Atria relax
5.2 Investigate effect of caffine on daphina's heart rate.
5.2.1 Ethical issues. Postive allows experiemtns to be conducted on animals than humans where as it would be unethical if they were studied. Unethical they cant give consent and subjected to painful procedures. Some say its more acceptable to experiment on invertabreates then vertabrates. simpler oragnisms. less Sophs NS.
6 CVD.
6.1 Atheroma formation.
6.1.1 1.Endothelium damage occurs (smoking or high blood pressure).
6.1.2 2.triggers infalmantory response white blood cells arrive.
6.1.3 3. WBC And lipids clump together under endo forming fatty streaks.
6.1.4 4. Overtime Lipids WBC And connective tissue harden to form a fibourous plaque called an atheroma.
6.1.5 5. this partially blocks the artery increasing blood pressure thus more atheroma form.
6.1.6 Can increase risk of Thombrosis formation. Can leave a rough surface causes blood clotting blood flow will be ristricted less oxygen will reach tissue causing stroke or heart atttack. 1.Protein called thombroplastin is released from damaged blood vessel. 2.Thombro converts prothrombin into thombrin. 3.It Catalysis the conversion of fibringen into fibrin (insouluble). 4.Finrin fibers Tangle together and form a mesh which platelets RBC Get trapped forming bloodclot.
7 Risk CVD.
7.1 Inactivity raises blood pressure.
7.2 Diet
7.2.1 Diet in high saturated fat /Salt increases colesterol- higher Atheroma formation
7.3 Smoking
7.3.1 CO Combines with hemoglobin reduces oxy carried. Nicotine makes platelets sticky increased BCF. Decreases number of antitoxitants.
8 Prevention of CVD.
8.1 Diet , excersise , quit smoking.
8.2 Antihypertensives reduce blood pressure , Con is palpations faiting depression
8.2.1 Plant statins reduce colesterol in blood Con = reduce absorbtion of some Vitamins in gut Anticoagulants/Platelet inhibitory drugs reduce formation of bloodclot Con= Excessive bleeding

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