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Identity- Mind Map

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Mind Map on identity
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Mind Map by olivia.nicole.ad, updated more than 1 year ago
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Created by olivia.nicole.ad over 6 years ago
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Resource summary

Identity- Mind Map
  1. Age
    1. Measured through Quantitative Methods
      1. Stages
        1. Can be categorised by actual age or by the stages in life e.g. childhood, youth, adulthood etc however these stages are socially constructed and when each stage starts and ends is varied from person to person
          1. Childhood- Socially constructed. Uk Culture sees childhood as a period of innocence, vulnerability and dependence. However in some cultures childhood is not really a concept as children often get married or become child soldiers at a young age (or work)
            1. Youth- Between the ages of 12-25. Period of time in which the person transitions from a child to an adult, mostly associated with rebellion and resistance (UK).
              1. Adulthood/ Middle Age- normally categorised by career and family, as most people during this stage will move into their own home form relationships and have children becoming independent from their parents. Middle age is associated with those in their 40s-50s, has quite negative connotations e.g. midlife crisi
                1. Old age- Normally associated with those of retirement age, 65-80. Also mainly negative links e.g ill health and deterioration of physical ability.
                2. Age relates to chronology and stages, such as adulthood and childhood in a persons lifetime
                  1. Views
                    1. Feminism- Women are judged by factors such as age. Society generally favours those of a young age/ younger appearance
                      1. Marxism- Adults have the most power and therefore get the most benefits, children are negatively treated in society , but ageist conflict is necessary
                        1. Functionalism- Age has no social benefits, children and adults should get different treatment to benefit society
                          1. Post Modernism- More children are being taken seriously, younger people are taking over due to the use of technology
                          2. Labelling Theory- Youth are now breaking away from the expectations of generations before them, therefore they are negatively labelled as deviant. Impression Management- Young people act in a polite way in public possibly as a front, many young people have different aspects of personality that they show according to who they are with i.e. family, friends. Looking Glass Self- young people would look up to older people, and as adults have a higher status they will take on their views and behaviours
                          3. Gender
                            1. Something that is fluid and ever changing
                              1. Males- the expectations of masculinity are changing constantly and are different according to varying cultures
                                1. Two types of Masculinity- 1)Aggressive Masculinity linked to working class. 2)Hegemonic Masculinity linked to socially desirable middle class
                                2. Females- the way in which women are seen have changed over the past 100 years (Appearance Behaviour and roles)
                                3. Nurture
                                  1. Primary and Secondary Socialisation
                                    1. Radical Feminists- Believe gender is socially constructed by a patriarchal society leading to inequality
                                      1. Ann Oakley- Manipulation, Canalisation, Verbal appellation and Different activites (this leads to the differences in genders)
                                  2. Nature
                                    1. Functionalists
                                      1. Mens role in the family is due to thier physical ability, but it is reinforced by socialisation
                                        1. Females have an expressive role, this is mainly due to the ability to have children but is also reinforced by socialisation
                                          1. Encourages collective consciousness, so GRS is a form of social control. Social variables replaced by Consumption
                                          2. Biological view
                                          3. Social construct created to set labels norms and values to a person because of their biological sex
                                            1. Measured through both Quant and Qualitative Methods
                                            2. Marxism
                                              1. Gender supports capitalism, as women reproduce maintain and support Capitalism due to their GRS
                                                1. Through having children Capitalism is reinforced through teaching their children with the norms and values of capitalism.
                                              2. Post Modernism
                                                1. Equality is improving as norms and values in gender are always changing in todays society. Gender diversity is becoming visible; altering modern days gender roles.
                                                2. Interactionism
                                                  1. Labelling
                                                    1. Rejecting roles can allow negative labelling.
                                                    2. Impression Management
                                                      1. People are convinced that they must put on an 'act' to be accepted, Women are more appearance wise (dress up and wear makeup). Men have mores sense of their actions, having to act masculine
                                                      2. Looking glass self
                                                        1. Women are persuaded by the different socialisation agencies that they must appeal in a certain way. They judge by how others percieve them so they change aspects of themselves to fit in.
                                                    3. Sexuality
                                                      1. Measured through both Quant and Qualitative Methods
                                                        1. describes sexual identity, attraction and experiences which do not necessarily align with the persons sex and gender.
                                                          1. Women are sexualised in the media ('beautified for the male gaze')
                                                            1. Rich (1980)- argues womens sexuality is oppressed by men in a partiarchal society, through marriage, sexual violence and the sexual objectification.
                                                            2. Sexuality is a label given to a person based on the category of gender find another sexually or romantically attractive. Heterosexuality is seen as the norm however homosexuality is becoming more accepted
                                                              1. Feminism- Heteronormativity is still the norm, women are sexualised for men in the media.
                                                                1. Marxism- Society is distracted by popular culture, distracts from issues with non-heterosexual individuals. Conflict theory; heteronormativity vs. diverse sexual orientation
                                                                  1. Heterosexuality is the norm as it serves capitalism, as it reinforces reproduction.
                                                                  2. Functionalist- Roles ensure that society runs smoothly, this includes the role of being a heterosexual. The traditional nuclear family is believed to be the best.
                                                                    1. Post Modernism- Sexual diversity establishing among society. Heteronormativity is breaking down, more rights to non herterosexual individuals. The media starts normalising homosexual relationships
                                                                      1. Labelling- Non-heterosexuals are given the label of their orientation
                                                                        1. Impression management- homosexuals will conform to their social roles or create a false persona
                                                                          1. Looking glass self- non heterosexuals are becoming more acceptable in western culture, but many still worry about how they are percieved
                                                                        2. Ethnicity
                                                                          1. Measured through Qualitative Methods
                                                                            1. National identity
                                                                              1. Identity of the whole country
                                                                                1. Which nation an individual identifies themselves with
                                                                                  1. National identity is often shown through supporting your national team in a sport, speaking that language or displaying your pride by singing that countries national anthem or waving their flag.
                                                                                2. Nationality is the part of your identity that determines your birth place and your citizenship
                                                                                3. Hybrid Identity
                                                                                  1. Someone's sense of who they are is determined by two or more influences
                                                                                    1. E.g, Someones Nationality and identity may be different (Identify as a British person but also a Muslim; British and Asian culture)
                                                                                    2. Is an identity formed with aspects made from a mixture
                                                                                    3. Ethnic identity is made up of religion, language, ethnic origin, skin colour and where we live.
                                                                                      1. Ethnicity relates to the sharing of similar socialisation and culture within a group of people in the same area.
                                                                                        1. Views on Ethnicity
                                                                                          1. Feminism- Supporting equality of all females, ethnicity should not divide them
                                                                                            1. Functionalism- Society benefits everyone of any ethnicity, some ethnicities should stay on uneven grounds to keep society running smoothly
                                                                                              1. Post Modernism-Equality is slowly improving due to international groups fighting for ethnic equality i.e. Black Lives Matter
                                                                                                1. Marxism- Conflict between people due to ethnicity is needed, the ideal ethnicity should be given the most power and benefits by society
                                                                                                2. Labelling theory- Western cultures label those with an ethnicity they disagree with, which can be counted as racial slurs. These often develop to harmful stereotypes. Impression Management- Communities of multiple ethnicities keep to them selves and when put into a avoid harm. Looking Glass Self- Ethnic minorities interact with others of different ethnicities often, would rather gain perception of someone else due to their own personal actions and their communities
                                                                                                  1. Winston James (1993)- Experience of racism unified identities of African-Caribbeans, their unifies cultures adopted the label black to prevent racism in the UK
                                                                                                  2. Identity means how your identity is shown in society and seen by others. Social Action (individual experience)
                                                                                                    1. Class
                                                                                                      1. Measured through Quantitative Methods
                                                                                                        1. Can be defined by a group who share similar economic status (annual income) and social situation. Also seen as a form of socialisation
                                                                                                          1. some social classes develop thier own norms and values, cultures and lifestyles.
                                                                                                            1. This may affect how the individual sees themselves and others contributing to their identity
                                                                                                          2. Affects the circumstances of the childs upbringing and relates to issues like health care, housing and the education available.
                                                                                                            1. Pierre Bourdieu
                                                                                                              1. Believes that classes are determined by Cultural, economic and social capital
                                                                                                                1. Different types of Capital
                                                                                                                  1. Economic Capital- Having Economic resources such as assets or cash
                                                                                                                    1. Social Capital- resources based on being a member of a group,relationship, having a network of influence and support
                                                                                                                      1. Cultural Capital- The advantages that someone has which gives them a higher status in society. (Education/ Skills)
                                                                                                                      2. He argues that the most significant is Cultural capital, which is passed on to the children from the parents. (includes knowledge of high culture and ettiquette ehich allows the children to move up to high culture)
                                                                                                                      3. Views on class
                                                                                                                        1. Marxism- Capitalism ensures that women and the proletariat occupy lower classes,
                                                                                                                          1. Feminism- Patriarchy places women in lower class position
                                                                                                                            1. Functionalism- Meritocratic see class as fair
                                                                                                                              1. Post Modernism- CAGES replaced by consumption, as diversity increases in how to gain wealth and income, the class system is dismissed
                                                                                                                              2. Labelling theory- Class generates expectations of behaviour, Impression Management- Those who are considered to be in a certian class are expected to act a cettain way- Cultural Capital, Looking glass self- They conform to stereotypical activites and aspects to 'keep up appearances'- Bourdon- Positional Theory.
                                                                                                                              3. Disability
                                                                                                                                1. Disability means to be differently abled; this can be physically or mentally
                                                                                                                                  1. Socially stigmatised as it seen as 'weird' to differ obviously from the 'norm' (appearance and natural ability
                                                                                                                                    1. Views on Disability
                                                                                                                                      1. Feminism- Everyone who has a disability should be treated equally, but females with disability are treated poorer then those who are able.
                                                                                                                                        1. Marxism- Conflict; as being disabled is a medical problem it clashes with the able. Society benefits the powerful and as able people are seen as normal they are favoured.
                                                                                                                                          1. Post Modernism- Disabled individuals are becoming highly covered but in a positive way. Also the advance in technology that is aimed toward helping disabled individuals, therefore helping them to blend into society
                                                                                                                                            1. Functionalism- Society can benefit both the able and disabled, the disabled are held below to keep society running smoothly
                                                                                                                                            2. Labeling theory- Their disability can become their master status, which stops many other people looking past them which makes disabled individuals feel uncomfortable in public. Impression Management- People with disabilities have to act more independent in public, but they will feel more comfortable when they are alone or with close friends/relatives. Looking Glass Self- disabled individuals know that many people will only see them as their disability, which makes them focus on what their impairments are rather than what they are actually capable of.
                                                                                                                                              1. Study on Disability- Gill (2009) became disabled from suffering from polio, she claims that it is hard to overcome previous beliefs on the disabled once she becomes disabled herself.
                                                                                                                                                1. Measured through Qualitative Methods
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