The liver

Mind Map by mtgbowen, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by mtgbowen about 5 years ago


The roles of the liver

Resource summary

The liver
1 Detoxification of alcohol
1.1 Takes place in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of the Hepatocytes
1.2 Ethanol molecules are small and fat soluble so can pass through the phospholipid bilayer into cells.
1.3 1. Ethanol is converted into ethanal by ethanol dehydrogenase.
1.4 2. Ethanal is converted into ethanoic acid by ethanal dehydrogenase.
1.5 3. Ethanoic acid in converted into Acetlycoenzyme A
1.6 Fatty liver---- NAD is required to oxidise fatty acids. If too much alcohol is consumed, there is not enough NAD to do so. As a result, fatty deposits build up in the liver.
1.7 Cirrhosis ----- Toxins in alcohol damage the hepatocytes. Damaged hepatocytes are replaces by fibrous tissue. The liver is not able to effectively carry out its function.
2 Blood supply
2.1 Receives oxygenated blood from the hepatic artery which branches off the Arota.
2.2 The hepatic portal vein carries blood from the digestive system so that the kidneys can control the levels of compounds ingested.
2.3 Blood is carried by the hepatic vein back to the vena cava
3 Functions
3.1 Control of blood glucose levels
3.2 synthesis of cholesterol and plasma proteins
3.3 Detoxification of alochol
4 Excretion
4.1 The removal of metabolic waste from the body. This is the unwanted substances produced in cell chemical reactions.
4.2 Excretion of CO2
4.2.1 Binds with haemoglobin to from carbaminohaemoglibin. This has a lower affinity for O2.
4.2.2 Dissolves in plasma and combines with H2O to form carbonic acid. This dissociates into HCO3- and H+. This increases the acidity of the blood. Leads to breathing difficulty, headaches, drowsiness, tremors and confusion.
4.3 Excretion of Nitrogenous compounds
4.3.1 Amino acids cannot be stored so they are Deaminated in the liver. This produces ammonia which is highly toxic. It must be converted into urea.
4.3.2 The remaining Keto acids are respired or turned into a carbohydrate or lipid for storage.
5 The Ornitine cycle
5.1 1. Ornitine + NH3 + CO2 ----> Citrulline + H2O
5.2 2, Citrulline + NH3 -----> Arginine + H2O
5.3 3. Arginine + H2O -----> Urea + Ornithine
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