Excretion

Ollie O'Keeffe
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A Levels Biology (Excretion) Mind Map on Excretion, created by Ollie O'Keeffe on 04/07/2014.

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Ollie O'Keeffe
Created by Ollie O'Keeffe over 5 years ago
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Excretion
1 Liver
1.1 Composed of cylindrical liver lobules
1.1.1 Hepatic vein
1.1.1.1 Takes blood away from liver
1.1.2 Hepatic portal vein
1.1.2.1 Brings blood w/ products of digestion from small intestine
1.1.2.1.1 Harmful substances digested & broken down
1.1.3 Hepatic artery
1.1.3.1 Brings oxygenated blood from the heart
1.1.4 Bile duct
1.1.4.1 Takes bile to gall bladder
1.2 Central vein
1.2.1 One per lobule
1.2.2 Central veins from all lobules connect to hepatic vein
1.2.3 Hepatic artery & hepatic portal vein connect to central vein in each lobule
1.3 Amino Acids
1.3.1 1. Deamination
1.3.1.1 A.acid --> Ammonia + Organic acids
1.3.2 2. Ornithine Cycle
1.3.2.1 Ammonia + CO2 --> Urea + H2O
1.4 Sinusoids
1.4.1 Vessels that blood flows through in lobules
1.5 Kupfer cells
1.5.1 Break down bacteria & old red blood cells
1.6 Hepatocytes
1.6.1 Break down harmful substances
1.7 Canaliculi
1.7.1 Vessels that bile flows through
2 Kidneys
2.1 Glomerulus
2.1.1 Bundle of capillaries in Bowman's Capsule
2.1.2 Ultrafiltration
2.1.2.1 Afferent artery is bigger than efferent artery
2.1.2.2 Blood entering efferent artery under high pressure
2.1.2.3 Smaller molecules forced out of blood
2.1.3 Layers to diffuse through:
2.1.3.1 BASEMENT MEMBRANE
2.1.3.2 ENDOTHELIUM
2.1.3.3 EPITHELIUM
2.2 Proximal Convulated Tubule
2.2.1 Reabsorption of glucose, ions, vitamins & some urea
2.2.2 Microvilli for high surface area
2.2.3 Facilitated diffusion & Active transport
2.3 Loop of Henle
2.3.1 Reabsorption of Water
2.3.2 Countercurrent Multiplier Mechanism
2.3.2.1 1. Low water potential in medulla, water osmoses out of descending limb
2.3.2.1.1 Impermeable to ions
2.3.2.1.2 Increases concentration of filtrate
2.3.2.2 2. Ions diffuse out of bottom of ascending limb, decreasing water potential of medulla
2.3.2.3 3. Ions actively transported out of ascending limb to further decrease water potential of medulla
2.3.2.3.1 Impermeable to water
2.4 Distal Convulated Tubule & Collecting Duct
2.4.1 Further reabsorption of water
2.5 ADH hormone
2.5.1 Secreted by posterior pituitary gland when low water content in blood
2.5.2 Causes insertion of aquaporins into DCT and collecting duct
2.5.2.1 Water channels
2.5.2.2 Increase permeability of (DCT and collecting duct) to water
2.5.2.3 More water reabsorbed
3 Detecting hormones

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