Living Things

panda.992009
Mind Map by panda.992009, updated more than 1 year ago
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Living Things
1 Plants
1.1 A living organism that absorbs water and nutrients by roots and synthesizes nutrients in its leaves by photosynthesis using the green pigment chlorophyll.
1.1.1 Angiosperm
1.1.1.1 A plant that has flowers and produces seeds. Includes herbaceous plants, shrubs, grasses, and most trees.
1.1.1.1.1 flowers, endosperm within the seeds, production of fruits that contain seeds.
1.1.1.1.1.1 Solanum lycopersicum (tomatoes)
1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Tomatoes are the state vegetable of New Jersey
1.1.2 Gymnosperm
1.1.2.1 A plant that has seeds unprotected by an ovary or fruit.
1.1.2.1.1 no shell around seeds, doesn’t produce flowers, doesn’t produce fruit, pollinated by wind.
1.1.2.1.1.1 Pinus sylvestris (scots pine)
1.1.2.1.1.1.1 One tree can live up to 700 years.
2 Animalia
2.1 A living organism that feeds on organic matter, typically having specialized sense organs and nervous system and able to respond rapidly to stimuli.
2.1.1 Echinodermata
2.1.1.1 A phylum of marine invertebrates. They have a fivefold radial symmetry, a calcareous skeleton and tube feet operated by fluid pressure.
2.1.1.1.1 feeds on fine particles in the water, boy shape highly variable with no head, reproduction is normally sexual, all live in a marine environment.
2.1.1.1.1.1 Holothuroidea (sea cucumber)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Sea cucumbers breath through their anus.
2.1.2 Chordate
2.1.2.1 Any animals that at some stage of development developed a dorsal nerve cord, notochord and gill slits.
2.1.2.1.1 a notochord, dorsal hallow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, post-anal tail.
2.1.2.1.1.1 Pristine (sawfish)
2.1.2.1.1.1.1 Sawfish can grow to over 20 feet long. (6m)
2.1.3 Mollusc
2.1.3.1 They have a soft, unsegmented body and live in aquatic or damp habitats, and most kinds have an external calcareous shell.
2.1.3.1.1 Body has more than two cell layers, tissues and organs. Body without cavity. Body possesses a through gut with mouth and anus.
2.1.3.1.1.1 Sepiida (cuttlefish)
2.1.3.1.1.1.1 The cuttle fish has 3 hearts
2.1.4 Porifera
2.1.4.1 A phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals that comprises the sponges.
2.1.4.1.1 Poriferans are commonly called sponges. These are multicellular organisms which are sessile/sedentary in nature. Most of them are marine while a few are fresh water forms. Body is cylindrical, asymmetrical or has radial symmetry.
2.1.4.1.1.1 Demospongiae (demosponge)
2.1.4.1.1.1.1 They have no organs.
2.1.5 Arthropod
2.1.5.1 An invertebrate animal.
2.1.5.1.1 They posses a chitinous exoskeleton that must be shed during growth. The paired appendages are jointed. The segmented bodies are arranged into regions, called tagmata. They have bilateral symmetry
2.1.5.1.1.1 Rhopalocera (butterfly)
2.1.5.1.1.1.1 Butterflies can see red, green, and yellow.
2.1.6 Nematoda
2.1.6.1 Any unsegmented worm
2.1.6.1.1 Bilaterally symmetrical, and vermiform. Body has more than two cell layers, tissues and organs. Body cavity is a pseudocoel, body fluid under high pressure. Body possesses a through gut with a subterminal anus.
2.1.6.1.1.1 Nematoda (roundworm)
2.1.6.1.1.1.1 Can range up to 20inches long. (50mm)
3 Fungi
3.1 All the fungus groups and sometimes the slime molds.
3.1.1 Basidiomycetes
3.1.1.1 a fungus whose spores develop in basidia. Basidiomycetes include the majority of familiar mushrooms and toadstools.
3.1.1.1.1 Agaricus Bisporus (mushrooms)
3.1.1.1.1.1 Mushrooms are made up of around 90% water.
3.1.2 Sarcodina
3.1.2.1 A subphylum of Protozoa, including all the amebae, both free-living and parasitic.
3.1.2.1.1 motile, eukaryote, heterotroph, unicellular
3.1.2.1.1.1 Radiolarians
3.1.2.1.1.1.1 Fossils have been found that date back 3.96 billion years.
4 Protista
4.1 A taxonomic kingdom comprising the protists.
4.1.1 Ciliophora
4.1.1.1 A phylum of protozoa in the kingdom Protista, comprising the ciliates.
4.1.1.1.1 Unicellular heterotrophs, feed on bacteria, algae, many are carnivorous, the organism uses cilia to walk or jump.
4.1.1.1.1.1 Suctoria
4.1.1.1.1.1.1 They live in either saltwater or freshwater.
4.1.2 Sporozoa
4.1.2.1 any parasitic spore-forming protozoan of the phylum (or class) sporozoa, several species of which, as plasmodia, cause malaria.
4.1.2.1.1 heterotroph, not motile, eukaryotes, unicellular
4.1.2.1.1.1 Plasmodium vivax (causes malaria)
4.1.2.1.1.1.1 Devastating parasitic disease.
5 Eubacteria
5.1 a bacterium of a large group typically having simple cells with rigid cell walls and often flagella for movement. The group comprises the “true” bacteria and cyanobacteria, as distinct from archaebacteria.
5.1.1 Cyanobacteria
5.1.1.1 Blue-green algae.
5.1.1.1.1 They are blue-green, omnipresent, the flagella are absent, they may be unicellular, colonial and filamentous.
5.1.1.1.1.1 Chroococcales
5.1.1.1.1.1.1 Can bloom all year around but more so during summer and fall.
6 Archaebacteria
6.1 microorganisms that are similar to bacteria in size and simplicity of structure but radically different in molecular organization. They are now believed to constitute an ancient intermediate group between the bacteria and eukaryotes.
6.1.1 Extreme Thermophiles
6.1.1.1 Heat-loving organisms with an optimum growth temperature of 50C.
6.1.1.1.1 They grow in heated regions, to tolerate heat they regulate their fatty acid composition, they are extracellular.
6.1.1.1.1.1 Geogemma barossii (strain 121)
6.1.1.1.1.1.1 First discovered 200 miles (320km) off Puget Sound.
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