Identity: how your identity is shown in society, and seen by others

Abbey Roberts
Mind Map by Abbey Roberts, updated more than 1 year ago
Abbey Roberts
Created by Abbey Roberts about 6 years ago
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identity mindmap

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Identity: how your identity is shown in society, and seen by others
  1. Ethnicity
    1. Shared cultural characteristics such as religion, language and lifestyle.
      1. Ghumann
        1. tradition, religion and family values played an important part in the upbringing of second-generation Asians in the UK.
        2. Winston James
          1. experience of racism unified identities of African-Caribbeans
            1. their unified culture adopted the label "black" to prevent racism in the UK
            2. Hewitt
              1. attempts of ethnic equality had been met with anger from the white community, who view it as 'unfair'.
              2. changing ethnic identities
                1. Modood- found a number of generational differences over the issue of identity, suggesting that second-generation ethnic minorities from both African-Caribbean and Asian backgrounds felt much more British than their parents, while still seeing their ethnic origin as a key part of their ethnic identity.
                2. national identity
                  1. National identity is often expressed through supporting your national team in sport, but also through pride in the anthem and flag, and through language.
                  2. changing national indentities
                    1. Britain, having lost its empire and feeling very small in a global world, is unsure about whether it should become more American or more European.
                    2. Feminism
                      1. supporting equality of all females;ethnicity should not divide them
                      2. Marxism
                        1. conflict between people due to ethnicity is needed, when there is equality
                        2. Functionalism
                          1. society benefits all of any ethnicity
                          2. Postmodernism
                            1. equality is slowly improving
                            2. labelling theory
                              1. Western cultures may label those with an ethnicity they "disagree with"
                              2. impression management
                                1. In communities of multiple ethnicities, many would keep to themselves
                                2. looking glass self
                                  1. ethnic minorities would interact with others of different ethnicities often in society
                                3. Gender
                                  1. fluid and changing
                                    1. social construct
                                      1. Marxism
                                        1. popular and mass culture distract society from gender inequality
                                          1. conflict theory
                                            1. gender inequality is necessary
                                          2. Functionalism
                                            1. Parsons
                                              1. females have an 'expressive role'
                                                1. males have an instrumental role (breadwinner, protector etc)
                                                2. society benefits everyone in different ways
                                                3. Feminists
                                                  1. gender identity is socially constructed by patriarchal society.
                                                    1. stereotypes
                                                      1. Mac an Ghaill
                                                        1. explores how boys learn to be men in their peer groups, policing their own and others' sexuality.
                                                          1. 3 F's: football, fighting, f**king
                                                        2. secondary socialisation can be harmful to women; cause body image issues
                                                        3. Oakely
                                                          1. manipulation
                                                            1. canalisation
                                                              1. verbal appellation
                                                                1. different activities
                                                                2. Denscombe
                                                                  1. There has been an increase in female risk taking behaviour for example, smoking, drinking etc.
                                                                    1. laddettes
                                                                    2. Connell
                                                                      1. Hegemonic masculinity is the most common type of masculinity and is reinforced most strongly.
                                                                        1. subordinate masculinity
                                                                          1. marginalised masculinity
                                                                          2. The crisis of masculinity
                                                                            1. loss of the breadwinner identity
                                                                              1. women working more and earning an income
                                                                              2. created to set labels, norms and values to a person because of their biology or sex.
                                                                                1. Gender roles
                                                                                  1. Postmodernism
                                                                                    1. norms and values in gender are always changing
                                                                                      1. gender diversity is becoming visible; altering modern days gender roles
                                                                                      2. labelling theory
                                                                                        1. gender roles are to be followed
                                                                                          1. rejecting such roles can allow negative labelling for both genders
                                                                                          2. impression management
                                                                                            1. people are convinced that they must put on a persona to be accepted into society
                                                                                            2. looking glass self
                                                                                              1. women are persuaded by agencies of socialisation that they must appeal in a certain way
                                                                                            3. Social Class
                                                                                              1. a group who share a similar economic and social situation
                                                                                                1. Bourdieu
                                                                                                  1. cultural capital
                                                                                                    1. knowledge, attitudes, skills, education snd advantages to gain a higher status
                                                                                                    2. economic capital
                                                                                                      1. cash, assets
                                                                                                      2. social capital
                                                                                                        1. group membership, relationships, networks
                                                                                                      3. Mackintosh and Mooney
                                                                                                        1. A key feature of the upper class is their invisibility
                                                                                                          1. social closure
                                                                                                            1. may send children to boarding school etc
                                                                                                          2. Middle class
                                                                                                            1. professional or managerial careers
                                                                                                              1. university educated
                                                                                                                1. own house
                                                                                                                2. working class
                                                                                                                  1. manual workers
                                                                                                                    1. Skeggs
                                                                                                                      1. working class women felt humiliated by the ways others judged and dismissed them
                                                                                                                    2. under class
                                                                                                                      1. people usually on benefits
                                                                                                                        1. Murray
                                                                                                                          1. over generous benefits encourage some people to develop a culture, or set of norms and values in which they do not take responsibility for their own actions.
                                                                                                                        2. changing class identities
                                                                                                                          1. Offe
                                                                                                                            1. we are all able to create our own identities regardless of the social class of our families and the particular level of qualifications or job we may have at any one time.
                                                                                                                            2. social class background remains the most significant indicator of outcomes such as education, health and life expectancy.
                                                                                                                            3. Feminism
                                                                                                                              1. gender inequality; women earn less power than men
                                                                                                                              2. Marxism
                                                                                                                                1. conflict between social classes caused by power
                                                                                                                                  1. society benefits rich and powerful; this would mean the upper class is benefitted most
                                                                                                                                  2. Functionalism
                                                                                                                                    1. society benefits everyone of all social classes
                                                                                                                                    2. Postmodernism
                                                                                                                                      1. modern life does not focus greatly on class status
                                                                                                                                        1. as diversity increases in how to gain wealth and income, the class system is dismissed.
                                                                                                                                        2. labelling theory
                                                                                                                                          1. social class is labelled by one's wealth and occupation.
                                                                                                                                            1. If a change in wealth and/or occupation occurs, they would be labelled differently.
                                                                                                                                            2. impression management
                                                                                                                                              1. those who are considered upper class would be expected to act a certain way
                                                                                                                                              2. looking glass self
                                                                                                                                                1. some people are comfortable in their social classes, whereas some think about how they are perceived.
                                                                                                                                              3. sexuality
                                                                                                                                                1. a label given due to who, on a category of gender, one would find sexually or romantically.
                                                                                                                                                  1. The 'norm' in society would be hetrosexual, but recently society has become more accepting of homosexuality and bisexuality.
                                                                                                                                                    1. Feminism
                                                                                                                                                      1. heteronormativity is still the 'norm'
                                                                                                                                                        1. women are sexualised for men in the media
                                                                                                                                                        2. Marxism
                                                                                                                                                          1. society is distracted by popular culture; distracts from issues with non-hetrosexual individuals.
                                                                                                                                                          2. Functionalism
                                                                                                                                                            1. the traditional nuclear family is believed to be best
                                                                                                                                                            2. Postmodernism
                                                                                                                                                              1. heteronormativity is breaking down; more rights to non-heterosexual individuals
                                                                                                                                                                1. media starts normalising homosexual relationships
                                                                                                                                                                2. labelling theory
                                                                                                                                                                  1. due to heteronormativity, people who are "out" as non- heterosexual are given the label of their orientation
                                                                                                                                                                  2. impression management
                                                                                                                                                                    1. many homosexual individuals would either conform to their social stereotypes or hide them if they relate to such
                                                                                                                                                                    2. looking glass self
                                                                                                                                                                      1. young individuals would examine how everyone uses sexuality-relevant labels such as 'gay', and view themselves with that meaning.
                                                                                                                                                                      2. Weeks
                                                                                                                                                                        1. "sexual identification is a strange thing"
                                                                                                                                                                        2. Rich
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Women's sexuality is oppressed by the patriarchy
                                                                                                                                                                          2. McIntosh
                                                                                                                                                                            1. claiming that homosexual men fill a "homosexual role" in Western cultures
                                                                                                                                                                          3. Age
                                                                                                                                                                            1. relates to chronology stages, such as childhood and adulthood, in a person's lifetime.
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Feminism
                                                                                                                                                                                1. women are judged by factors such as age
                                                                                                                                                                                2. Marxism
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. ageist conflict is necessary along with togetherness
                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Functionalism
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. age has no matter on social benefits
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Postmodernism
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. more children are being taken seriously
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. younger people are taking over
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. labelling theory
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. youth tend to break away from expectations by older generations
                                                                                                                                                                                          2. impression management
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. young people act respectful, civil in public; possibly as a front
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. looking glass self
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. children and young people would look up to older people in their lives
                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Postman
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. the creation of the "innocent child"
                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Bradley
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. middle age has a higher status in society than youth and old age
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