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Genetical engineerinng

Description

mental map of genetic engineering
carlax_cute
Mind Map by carlax_cute, updated more than 1 year ago
carlax_cute
Created by carlax_cute over 6 years ago
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Resource summary

Genetical engineerinng
  1. Gene therapy
    1. Treatment that involves introducing changed genetic into a person's cell to fight sickness.
      1. First the gene with the fault that causes the disease must be identified. Then the location of the affected cell must be pinpointed. The healthy version of the gene must be available, and then that gene must be delivered to the body.
        1. In Vivo
          1. To insert a gene to the cell, a carrier or vector must be used. The vector is inserted into the cell, and then it releases its genetic material. No cells are removed from the body.
          2. Ex Vivo
            1. Cells from the patient are removed and exposed to a virus carrying the desired gene. The gene now becomes part of the DNA and the cell is returned to the patients body.
          3. Gene therapy has been tested for different applications
            1. Cancer gene therapy
              1. Prevent or cure Alzheimer
                1. Cure Asthma
            2. Transgenics
              1. Organisms with altered genoma are called transgenic. Foreign DNA is introduced into an organism's genoma.
                1. Transgenic organisms have been developed for research and commercial uses.
                  1. Research
                    1. The study of "knock-out" genes.
                    2. Commercial
                      1. Production of golden rice, genetically modified corn, blue roses.
                    3. This is done through experimental hamlets or early embryos
                  2. Cloning
                    1. Organisms with exact genetic are clones.
                      1. Naturally
                        1. When egg and sperm join they create an embryo.
                          1. When the embryo splits in two, Identical twins are formed. Each half of the embryo keeps dividing on its own developing at last as two completely separated individuals. Both developed from the same fertilized egg.
                        2. Artificially
                          1. Artificial Embryo Twinning
                            1. Mimics the natural process of creating twins, but the process occurs in a Petri dish.
                              1. A very early embryo is separated into individual cells, and then in the Petri dished they can divide and develop. After that the embryos are placed in the mother where they completely develop.
                            2. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
                              1. First you need to isolate a somatic cell (any cell in the body besides the germ cells), then remove the nucleus of an egg cell for the DNA. After that, transfer the nucleus of the somatic cell to the egg cell. The egg cell with the new nucleus will act as a fertilized egg, and it would be inserted to a mother so that the embryo can develop.
                            3. Examples
                              1. Dolly the sheep
                                1. Identical twins
                              2. Gene cloning is making exact copies of a single gene of an organism.
                              3. Paternity
                                1. Paternity tests can help determine who the father of your child is.
                                  1. First DNA has to be collected from the possible father and the child, so that it can be later examined.
                                2. Criminology
                                  1. It is the scientific study of crimes
                                    1. DNA is a type of evidence in crimes. It is used to identify individuals involved in the crime, linking two crimes.
                                      1. Now a days, DNA can help in crimes by making profiles of potential criminals, then the profile is compared with the evidence in the crime scene.
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