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Breast Cancer


Mind map based on Breast Cancer
Mind Map by s1401040, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by s1401040 over 6 years ago

Resource summary

Breast Cancer
    1. • Change in the size/shape of the breast • Nipple discharge • Rash/crusting around the nipple • Change in nipple appearance eg becomes inverted • Lump in the armpit • Rash on/around armpit • Dimpling of skin on the breast • Change in colour of the breast eg red /inflamed
      1. Mammogram
        1. A mammogram is useful for finding early changes in the breast, when it may be difficult to feel a lump. It isn't as helpful in younger women though. If women are under 35, a consultant is likely to suggest that they have an ultrasound instead of a mammogram. • A mammogram can be uncomfortable because the breasts are put between two metal plates and a little pressure is applied. But most women describe this as mild to moderate discomfort. The discomfort only lasts a few minutes and the pressure doesn't harm the breasts
        2. Breast ultrasound
          1. Ultrasound scans use sound waves to make a picture of the inside of the body. Breast ultrasound is painless and takes just a few minutes. It is usually used for women under 35 whose breasts are too dense or solid to give a clear picture with mammograms. Ultrasound can also show if a breast lump is solid, or if it contains fluid (a cyst).
          2. Fine needle aspiration (FNA)
            1. The doctor uses a fine needle and syringe to take a sample of cells from the breast lump. They may also use this test to drain fluid from a benign cyst. A needle biopsy can be used to take a core of tissue from a breast lump.
            2. Ultrasound and FNA of the lymph nodes
              1. The doctor uses the FNA technique, as above, whilst using an ultrasound scan to locate the lymph nodes and take samples of cells.
              2. Biopsy such as a needle (core) biopsy, vacuum-assisted biopsy, excision biopsy or wire localisation
                1. To complete a core needle biopsy, a surgeon will use a large, hollow-core needle, which has a special tip. The surgeon puts this needle through the skin and into the lump. A very small tissue sample will be taken into the core needle. Sometimes the surgeon will also use suction, in order to remove a slightly larger sample of tissue. The sample is then sent for laboratory tests. Other biopsy techniques can be used if it is problematic obtaining a tissue sample through a core needle biopsy.
              3. TREATMENTS?
                1. Surgery
                  1. The type of surgery individuals have will depend on: • the size of the cancer in their breast • Whether it has spread to any other part of the body • The size of the breasts • The individuals personal wishes and feelings In some situations individuals may be offered a choice of treatments. They may need to have: • The whole breast removed (mastectomy) • Only the lump or area of cancer removed (called lumpectomy or wide local excision) • About a quarter of the breast tissue removed (quadrantectomy) Individuals may choose to have a new breast shape made (breast reconstruction) at the time of surgery or later. Having a reconstruction sometime after the original surgery is called delayed reconstruction.
                    1. Lumpectomy
                      1. Surgery to remove the area of cancer is called lumpectomy or wide local excision. The surgeon takes away just the cancer and a border of healthy tissue all around it. They leave behind as much healthy breast tissue as possible. They send the tissue that they remove to a pathologist for examination under a microscope. The pathologist checks for cancer cells in the border around the lump. If that border does not contain cancer cells, the report will say there is a healthy margin or clear margin.
                        1. Mastectomy
                          1. Some women need to have a mastectomy (removal of the whole breast). Mastectomy is the most suitable treatment if an individual has: • A large lump, particularly in a small breast • A lump in the middle of the breast • More than one area of cancer in the breast • Areas of DCIS in the rest of the breast There are different types of mastectomy: • A mastectomy removes the breast tissue (including the skin and the nipple) and the tissues that cover the chest muscles • A radical mastectomy also removes the muscles of the chest wall (this operation is rarely done now) The scar from a mastectomy extends across the skin of the chest and into the armpit
                      2. Radiotherapy
                        1. Chemotherapy
                          1. This is often given before surgery to shrink a large tumour so that only a part of the breast needs to be removed, avoiding the need for a full mastectomy. It may also be given after surgery to reduce the risk of the cancer coming back
                        2. LIFESTYLE CHANGES?
                          1. WHAT IS IT?
                            1. Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. New cells are only made when and where they are needed. In cancer, this orderly process goes wrong and cells begin to grow and multiply. Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast begin to divide and grow in an abnormal way, forming a lump or” tumour”
                            2. POTENTIAL IMPACTS?
                              1. PATIENT-CENTRED APPROACH TO HEALTH CARE?
                                1. PATIENT CARE PATHWAY?
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