due to either loss of sodium or overload of water or both.
The following list contains the relatively common and important causes of hyponatraemia.
For more complex cases, it is necessary to have simultaneous samples of both blood and urine for estimation of osmolality and electrolytes.
1.1.1 + edema
220.127.116.11 Liver failure
18.104.22.168 nephrotic syndrome
22.214.171.124 Addison's disease
126.96.36.199 Renal salt wasting
1.1.3 +normal volume
188.8.131.52 D + V follwed by drinking excess water
Monitoring: Prior to the initiation of therapy and after 2/52, 3/12, 6/12 and then 6-12/12
or more frequently in the elderly or in patients with renal disease, disorders affecting electrolyte status or those patients taking other drugs eg corticosteroids, digoxin.
184.108.40.206.1 may occur w/in 1-2 weeks of initiation of therapy but
may develop after many years of therapy
220.127.116.11 ACE inhibitors
1.1.4 + innapprop ADH secretion
18.104.22.168 drug therapy
22.214.171.124 chest disease
126.96.36.199 CNS disease
1.1.5 complications varied
from seizures and coma in younger ppl,
wherby chronic diuretic therapy can bring down hugely in old ppl w/little effect
2.1 hyperkalemia (K >5.5 mmol/L)
2.1.1 hemolysis and delayed separation over-night storage in a 'fridge'