A2 Edexcel Water conflicts

linh v
Mind Map by linh v, updated more than 1 year ago
linh v
Created by linh v about 6 years ago
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My personal mind map of water conflict

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A2 Edexcel Water conflicts
  1. The risk of water insecurity
    1. Not having access to sufficient safe/clean water which is fit to drink
      1. Water supplies essential to economic development
        1. Irrigation
          1. Manufactoring
            1. Energy Generation
            2. Water conflicts occur when demand for water overtakes the supply, & there are several stakeholders wish to use the same dimishing resource
              1. Involves 20 or more developing countries because: struggle to feed growing populations, promote industrial development, legacy of poor water management.
                1. Aral Sea
                  1. The decline of the fishing industry which was once prosperous, due shrinking in-land sea and extinction of fish species, creates 60,000 people unemployed and suffer economic hardship
                    1. Potable water becomes more scarce as ground water/sea is contaminated by weapon testing, industrial projects, fertiliser runoff and blown salt from the sea
                      1. Low HDI: lowest infant rate in the world, high rate of respiration diseases and spread water-borne diseases
                        1. The Former Soviet government wanted to increase cotton's production to establish economic development. They diverted the sea into 2 rivers, which is mainly used for irrigation. However, the irrigation channels were poorly built allow water to leak or evaporate. Cotton plants also tax on the water usage.
                          1. Tech fix: The gov secured 126million dollar loan from the world bank to recover the water-flow in N.Aral Sea. Invested 68million dollar to build a dam that has split the sea into 2 parts. Fishermen are coming back, and rate of out-migration have reduced.
                            1. New loan will be used to build a second dam to bring back the deserted part of Aralsk and S.Aral Sea (which is desperate in need for water to continue growing cotton as their cash crop). However, this can be challenging as the headwaters are controlled by other countries, this could lead to water insecurity and potential conflicts.
                          2. Retreat of the sea (now 1/10 of its original size) has reportedly also caused local CC with more extreme seasonal climate
                          3. Middle East Water conflict
                            1. Combination of growing population (which lead to increase of affluence) and low seasonal rainfall have created pressure on middle east region, which is the most water-scarce region in the world. The water stress cannot be resolve without impacting to neighbouring countries
                              1. Turkey's GAP
                                1. Heavily dependence on cash crops (which can tax on the water usage) because they do not have the oil/gas resources to invest on expensive water technology
                                  1. Climate change/GW have huge impact on Turkey's water availability as there is long period of successive droughts in regions from 1995-2005
                                    1. Israel depends on desalination technology than Turkey's water transfer because of its unreliability in term of clean water availability caused from recent CC
                                      1. Secure Israel's waterflow by focusing on water recycle plans, more effective and awareness of water uses, and developing more desalination plants (about 5 existing) plants at maximum capacity. They still diverse the fresh water suppy by import small amount of clean water and water rich food from Turkey
                                    2. Turkey's GAP is hoping to boost the least developed region in Turkey by developing irrigation system and energy supply in Anatolia.
                                      1. The project involves construction of 22 dams, 19 hydroelectric power plants, 2 water transfer tunnels to boost the electricity diversion by 2010.
                                        1. The construction of the Illisu dam created many socio-economic impacts:Displacement of 80,000 homes and 10,000 kurds, create water-borne diseases and malaria, flood of historic town of Hasankeyf with its buildings, create tension between Iraq and Syria
                                          1. Therefore, the construction of the second dam (Crere Dam) have lost its supporters (especially its main funders like TNCs and the World Bank) because of its potential damages and conflicts for Turkey and is neighbouring countries.
                                2. Bangladesh vs India (both are reaching stage 2 in take off economic development)
                                  1. India opened the Farakka Barage 11km from the border of Bangladesh
                                    1. Double loser due to the effect of population booming in India & deprived of much water needs on the Ganges RIver
                                      1. Agreement about water-share have been signed in 1990, however India is still dominate over the water's availability
                                      2. Now India wants to extend its waterflow from the Farakka Barage to response for its rapid economic growth&booming population
                                        1. Water flows through major India cities & contaminates by mixture of sewage dump and industrial wastes
                                      3. India: rapid urbanisation+pop growth+large wave of rural-urban migration+recent industrialisation
                                    2. UN suggests over 300 potential water conflicts
                                      1. Natural watershed/features do not match with humans' borders.
                                  2. The future
                                    1. Range of players are involving in forecasting the trends in water demands. However, any predictions are tentative as they are involve in uncertain factors such as CC.
                                      1. International Organisations (International Food policy & Research Institute) used a computer model yo examine the implications of 3 alternative future of global water supply and demand.
                                        1. BUSINESS AS USUAL
                                          1. WATER CRISIS
                                            1. SUSTAINABLE WATER
                                              1. Hard engineering project to increase water transfer&storage
                                                1. However major projects will become too costly & the cost of environmental impacts
                                                  1. EG: Three GorgersProject
                                                2. Restoration of lost rural water supplies
                                                  1. Reduce degradation and pollution
                                                    1. Sanitation and waste management eg: Israel, Rwanda, Ebro River in SPain
                                                      1. Desalination technology
                                                        1. Water recycling "NEWater" in Singapore
                                                        2. Regulations on TNCs' exploitations eg: China, India, BRICs
                                                          1. Restoring shrinking lakes and wetlands
                                                            1. Aral Sea
                                                              1. River Kissimmee, Florida
                                                            2. Reduce conflicts by water treaties
                                                              1. The nile river basin initiative for the 8 growing countries who are sharing the Nile's water
                                                                1. Egypt
                                                                  1. Ethiopia
                                                                    1. Uganda
                                                                    2. 1920 Law of RIver to reduce conflicts between different water uers on the Colorado Rivers between upper basin states and lower basin states
                                                                      1. Environmentalists
                                                                        1. Indigenous group
                                                                          1. US gov
                                                                            1. Farmers
                                                                              1. Mexican people
                                                                                1. City dwellers
                                                                          2. Water conservation in urban areas
                                                                            1. Increase awareness for behavior change and education to decrease the demand and consumption
                                                                              1. Water meter and taxation (AUS)
                                                                                1. Monitor and change of water prices
                                                                                  1. More efficient water usage in agricultural, industry and domestic uses
                                                                                    1. Tech fix: low flow shower heads, water recycling. sustainable settlements (BEDzed, Dongtan China
                                                                                      1. Drip irrigation & monitor of evapotransprirations rate; eg: Ogallala Aquifer
                                                                                    2. Increase supply of freshwater by diversifying the water supplements
                                                                                      1. Privatisation of water services
                                                                                        1. Water treatment plants eg:china, UK, The Snowy Mountain Scheme
                                                                                          1. Water transfer EG:China's South-North Transfer
                                                                                            1. Water harvesting & change of land use eg: Lake Chad
                                                                                      2. Water players and decision makers are aiming for the conservation and sustainable development of water resources.
                                                                                        1. Political; international organisations, government departments, pressure groups
                                                                                          1. Economic;World Bank, governments, developers, TNCS, agricultural and industries
                                                                                            1. The Ebro River in Spain; has the potential to become the largest European high-class holiday destination so many investors was interested in the development. However, the project is cancelled as desalination technology is proven to be cheaper and more efficient in providing safe water in shorter amount of time. Also, top-down project could have drastic impacts on the fragile ecology of the delta's. Therefore, the new gov applied stricter environmental management by improving the irrigatin system, encouraging the use of grasslands with subsides and improving water recycling.
                                                                                            2. Social; individuals, indigenous groups,consumers, health officials, NGOs (waterAid)
                                                                                              1. WaterAID in Ethiopia (low WPI) : Work with local partners to reduce the impact of extended period of droughts, improve sustainable development through increase of farming efficiency with improvement of water coordinates and technology so they are not so heavily dependence on labour works (esp with remote villages), improvement of HDI of 42 million people living without access to water (physicial scarcity), uniting a range of water players to help promote the water rights and sanitation throughout Ethiopia.
                                                                                                1. As of last year, approx almost 180,000 people with safe water & improvement of sanitation for 220,000 lives.
                                                                                              2. Environmental; conservationist, environmentalists, engineerers, NGOs,
                                                                                              3. The Helsinki Rule
                                                                                                1. Natural factors
                                                                                                  1. Social&Economic needs
                                                                                                    1. Downstream impacts
                                                                                                      1. Prior use
                                                                                                        1. Effiiency
                                                                                                    2. The geography of water suppy
                                                                                                      1. Physical factors influence on geography of water supply
                                                                                                        1. Climate system
                                                                                                          1. Intertropical Convergence Zone receive high levels of annual precipitation, and have 2 distinct period of wet weather per year.
                                                                                                            1. Monsoon areas of Asia have 1 very wet season
                                                                                                            2. River system
                                                                                                              1. The world's major rivers store large quantities of water and transfer it across contiments
                                                                                                                1. River flow increases downstream as more tributaries feed into the main-river
                                                                                                                  1. Most of major rivers are fed by snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada Mountains
                                                                                                                  2. Geology
                                                                                                                    1. Where rocks underlying a river basin are impermeable, therefore water wil remain on the surface creating high drainage density
                                                                                                                      1. Aquifers can store huge amounts of water underground
                                                                                                                    2. Water stress
                                                                                                                      1. Threats
                                                                                                                        1. Decline of precipitations could reduce the water flow in many regions
                                                                                                                          1. Rapid global population grow increases the demands for water exceed natural supplies
                                                                                                                            1. 1.2 billion people live with "water scarcity"
                                                                                                                              1. Physical scarcity
                                                                                                                                1. Economic scarcity
                                                                                                                                  1. Water Poverty Index determines the development progress of each country out of the scale of 100
                                                                                                                                    1. Can reduce poverty and encourage development- increase food production, bring better health, and provide better standards of wellbeing.
                                                                                                                                      1. Resources
                                                                                                                                        1. Access
                                                                                                                                          1. Capacity
                                                                                                                                            1. Use
                                                                                                                                              1. Environment
                                                                                                                                      2. Impacts of human impacts
                                                                                                                                        1. Agricultural: 17% of the global area used for growing crops is irrigated. Growing population also put farming under pressure to increase productivity
                                                                                                                                          1. Chemical fertilizer runoff contaminate the underground water as well as overland water storage. This could affect the local ecology; eg, increase growth of algae can increase the population of alien species
                                                                                                                                          2. Industry: have better water efficiency in developed nations due to better water monitor technology. However, rapid growth of BRICs, India and China more demanding for water used for economic development and electricity generation
                                                                                                                                            1. Every year the world generate 400 billion tonnes of industrial waste which is pumped untreated into natural water storage (lake, sea)
                                                                                                                                              1. Trap sediment in reservoirs which reduces floodplain fertility and flow of nutrient from rivers into seas, which could lead to sea water incursion
                                                                                                                                              2. Domestic: uneven distribution of water intake as 20 developing countries or more experience water scarcity. 10% of world's water is being used for domestic uses, however the intake varies in different countries and regions. With this rate, the domestic demand could possibly to be doubled every 20 years.
                                                                                                                                                1. Sewage disposal in developing countries is expected to cause 135 million deaths by 2020.
                                                                                                                                                  1. In the UK we add 1400 million litres of sewage to our rivers daily although most of it has been treated
                                                                                                                                                    1. Maximum abstraction outweigh the rate of recharge can lead to consequences :salt water incursion, salinisation, land subsidence at risk of rising sea level
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