How Effective is Golden Rice in Solving the Problem of Vitamin A Deficiency in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDC)?

rebecca.millard
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rebecca.millard
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How Effective is Golden Rice in Solving the Problem of Vitamin A Deficiency in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDC)?
  1. Benifits
    1. Social
      1. GM (genetically modified) golden rice will decrease the amount of people with vitamin A deficiency
        1. Vitamin A deficiency is the lack of vitamin A in humans
          1. It is most common in poorer places, such as Africa and indonesia
            1. Lack of vitamin A is one of the leading causes of blindness's that can be prevented.
              1. An estimated 500,000 children and blind due to vitamin A deficiency world wide
              2. Lack of vitamin A causes reduced response in the immune system
                1. Vitamin A is found in food such as carrots, sweet patatos and tuna fish
                2. Golden rice can do this as it has an increased amount of Beta Carotene, a precursor of vitamin A
                  1. Beta Carotene is a pigment that gives vitamin A rich food their orange colour
                    1. Golden rice is enriched with Vitamin A
                    2. In the philippines alone, Vitamin A deficiency causes 9,000 cases of blindness and 950 deaths per year.
                    3. Pesticides also effect human health. This would be because, if a person is to eat a plant that has been sprayed with pesticide, they could experience major impacts on their health due to the
                    4. Environmental
                      1. Golden rice reduces the use of pesticides on this crop
                        1. This, therefore, will benefit the environment as using pesticides may inflict injury of other wildlife, such as plants and animals.
                          1. Pesticides also effect human health. This would be because, if a person is to eat a plant that has been sprayed with pesticide, they could experience major impacts on their health due to the chemicals used in pesticides.
                            1. Pesticides harmful chemical's could cause, birth defects, affect the nervous system, or even cause cancer. While other pesticides are endocrine disruptors and affect the body's hormones and endocrine system, or it could just irritate the skin and eyes.
                      2. Economic
                        1. In the Philippines alone, studies, using information from the World Bank index, have show that almost 137 million US dollars is lost due to ill health and premature deaths caused by vitamin A deficiency.
                        2. Cultural
                          1. Studies, that have been conducted by University of California and Rutgers University, have shown that golden rice has now been know to encourage healthier farms.
                            1. This has been proven when biologist where sent to look at Chinese farmers who have been growing the golden rice crop since 2000.
                              1. The farms environmental impact from the golden rice was positive as the studies observed higher crop yields and reduced pesticide use.
                                1. Golden rice reduces the use of pesticides on this crop
                        3. Limitations
                          1. Environmental
                            1. Many people speculate that the Golden Rice crop will possibility becoming a weed
                              1. Multiple people also speculate that this genetically modified crop will possibility transfer unwanted genes closely related wild crops.
                                1. This could cause a major drop in original versions of these speices.
                              2. Ethical
                                1. There are multiple people who believe that golden rice is not something that nature intended and thus it may have adverse effects on those who consume this crop.
                                2. Social
                                  1. Although golden rice is intended to be accsessible to increased amounts of poorer people, golden rice, as well as genetically modified foods in general, have been found to cause allergic reactions to multiple people.
                                    1. This limitation could cause major health risks, varying on the person with the allergy. The reaction could display itself in the form of a mild rash or watery eyes, to the inability to breath.
                                      1. Not only is this unsafe, this new discovery of GM golden rice has raised even more concerns about if this crop can be consumed
                                        1. Ethical
                                      2. Reaserch shows that the first developed golden rice strand did not contain enough vitamin A, therefor would be inaffective
                                        1. A later strand of golden rice was created that scientist claimed contained more beta-carotene.
                                          1. Critics still express some concern that this will still not contain enough vitamin A to be affective for the problem it is trying to solve
                                          2. Multiple people suggest that the best way to address the issue of malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency is to encourage people to plant a variety of fruits and vegetables in their backyard and maintain a balanced diet instead of encouraging those people to rely on a food, golden rice.
                                            1. Ethical
                                              1. People also suggest that ultimately this food will never contain the nutrients to be defined as a healthy diet.
                                          3. Political
                                            1. As many people express concerns that GM rice is not safe, governments have taken it upon themselves to send scientist to further test.
                                              1. Although further testing is continuing to help people feel more comfortable with the idea of GM rice, this is then causing a rise in price for golden rice, higher than people under the poverty line can afford.
                                                1. If prices raise higher for this crop, the whole intention to create a source of vitamin A for people experiencing poverty is lost.
                                            2. Economic
                                              1. As many people express concerns that GM rice is not safe, governments have taken it upon themselves to send scientist to further test.
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