Success of the 1st Crusade

Georgia Hammersley
Mind Map by Georgia Hammersley, updated more than 1 year ago
Georgia Hammersley
Created by Georgia Hammersley about 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Success of the 1st Crusade, created by Georgia Hammersley on 11/28/2015.
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Success of the 1st Crusade
1 Muslim Disunity
1.1 Arslan away fighting Danishmend turks
1.1.1 too late to relieve Nicea - his base
1.1.1.1 lost support of local leaders - cities fell to crusaders
1.2 Kerbogha's army not assisted by Duqaq and Ridwan - Antioch
1.2.1 not organised - Arguably the most serious threat faced by the First Crusaders came at the hands of Kerghoba of Mosul when he laid siege to the recently captured city of Antioch, but when the Franks emerged from the city, some Turks who wished to avoid fighting took advantage of what they knew to be the signal to retreat and started a fire[2] . Undoubtedly, this lack of organised resistance is what allowed the Crusaders (who themselves were not immune to inner fighting and arguments, but managed to overcome it) to eventually take Jerusalem and set up the Crusader States.
1.3 1092 - Malik Shad and his chief adviser (--?) died within a few weeks - threw the muslim world into turmoil
1.3.1 Dispute in Malik's family - who should be his successor ? --- sultanate of Rum, Syria and Palestine (which the crusaders would pass through)
1.3.2 local warlords built up power bases in Seljuk Land - political chaos 1097 - The united armies of Western Europe did not face one united Muslim force, but the various militaries of many different warlords and sultans.
1.4 Religiously Divided
1.4.1 Seljuks (overthrew Abbasid power) Syria and Palestine (Sunnis) Vs. Fatimids in Egypt (Shi'ites)
1.4.1.1 much of Syria and Palestine were Shi'ites -- support Fatimid rule --- who wanted to extend land into Seljuk owned Anatolia (even if it meant fighting fellow muslims)
1.5 meant they wouldn't be effective in fighting against the crusaders
1.6 underestimated the crusaders - bad judgement of the capability of well trained army of up to 100,000 men - based on the chaotic horde of the peasants crusade.
1.7 division of Antioch
1.7.1 The capture of Antioch itself had been possible because not even a single city was fully united against the Crusaders - Antioch was taken due to a traitor inside the walls to whom `Bohemond often sent messages, sounding as to whether he would receive him in to the city[3]’. Through this one can see how the division of Islam made it possible for those on the First Crusade to succeed in taking the Holy Land.
1.7.1.1 the Crusaders never had one united front to face, making success far easier to achieve.
2 Military Leadership
2.1 Bohemund - Dorylaeum
2.1.1 Kilij Arslan's army launched an attack on the 20,000 smaller contingent ahead of the main fleet - Bohemund arranged them into a tight defensive formation which held out for 5 hours until the main fleet arrived.
2.1.1.1 When the main fleet arrived they fled - Kilij arslan caused many local leaders to lose faith in his leadership. Cities of W. Anatolia surrendered one by one.
2.2 Godfrey - Jerusalem
2.2.1 Godfrey moved a siege tower overnight to a weak spot in the wall on the East side.
2.3 Continents organised making them more effective - 8 princes/lords at the front, 200 wealthy lords behind them, 6,000 knights on horseback, 22,000 well equiped foot soldiers and 22,000 poorer behind them.
2.4 Disiplined army - didn't lose masses to violence like the peasants' crusade --> members' were committed!
2.4.1 Lead them into battle
2.4.1.1 Primary accounts of the first Crusade are full of praise for the great deeds of the men who realized that the Crusaders `must unite to survive`, such as the tale Bohemond of rallying soldiers with the claim that “if our enemies find you without a leader you will all die” before leading them back on in to battle to claim victory[5][6].
2.5 Bohemund at Antioch - alliance with an insider.
2.6 Bohemund Vs. Kerbogha - surprise attack took muslims by surprise and tight formation made them undefeatable, even though they were outnumbered.
3 Religious Fervour
3.1 Bartholomew and Holy Lance - Antioch
3.1.1 God had shown him where they would find the remains of the Lance used to pierce Jesus when he was crucified - found on the 14th of June under the floor of Antioch cathedral. --- sign from God!!
3.1.1.1 many more started to claim visions and signs from God.
3.1.2 although outnumbered they defeated Kerbogha's army
3.2 Visions of Adhemar Le Puy - Jerusalem
3.3 Dorylaeum encouraged by religious chants - 'Stand together, trusting in Christ... Today we may gain much booty.'
3.4 intensified by Adhemar's motivation
3.4.1 called for crusaders to pray and fast. women ordered to leave the crusaders' camp - refrain from all sexual activity
3.4.2 Carried the lance into battle against Kerbogha.
4 Size
4.1 David Nicolle - 30,000-35,000
4.1.1 Raymond's contingent - 10,000 --> the largest!
4.1.2 Largest assembled since the rule of the Roman Empire
4.2 outnumbered against Kerbogha
5 Help from Byzantium
5.1 Supplies
5.1.1 food supplies and weaponry as they crossed the balkans - contributed to the strength of the crusaders!
5.1.1.1 Less died from starvation, illness and violence!
5.2 Guides
5.3 stephen of blois was not convinced of Bohemund's plan at Antioch - deserted on the 2nd of June --> Met Alexios who was arriving to join the army with reinforcements - warned the emperor the crusader's were damned, so he turned back.
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