184.108.40.206 lost support of local leaders -
cities fell to crusaders
1.2 Kerbogha's army not assisted by Duqaq and Ridwan - Antioch
1.2.1 not organised - Arguably the most serious threat faced by the First Crusaders came at the hands of
Kerghoba of Mosul when he laid siege to the recently captured city of Antioch, but when the Franks
emerged from the city, some Turks who wished to avoid fighting took advantage of what they knew
to be the signal to retreat and started a fire . Undoubtedly, this lack of organised resistance is
what allowed the Crusaders (who themselves were not immune to inner fighting and arguments,
but managed to overcome it) to eventually take Jerusalem and set up the Crusader States.
1.3 1092 - Malik Shad and
his chief adviser (--?)
died within a few
weeks - threw the
muslim world into
1.3.1 Dispute in Malik's family - who
should be his successor ? ---
sultanate of Rum, Syria and
Palestine (which the crusaders
would pass through)
1.3.2 local warlords built up power
bases in Seljuk Land - political
chaos 1097 - The united
armies of Western Europe did
not face one united Muslim
force, but the various
militaries of many different
warlords and sultans.
1.4 Religiously Divided
1.4.1 Seljuks (overthrew Abbasid power) Syria and
Palestine (Sunnis) Vs. Fatimids in Egypt (Shi'ites)
220.127.116.11 much of Syria and Palestine
were Shi'ites -- support Fatimid
rule --- who wanted to extend
land into Seljuk owned Anatolia
(even if it meant fighting fellow
1.5 meant they
1.6 underestimated the crusaders - bad
judgement of the capability of well
trained army of up to 100,000 men -
based on the chaotic horde of the
1.7 division of Antioch
1.7.1 The capture of Antioch itself had been possible because not even a
single city was fully united against the Crusaders - Antioch was taken
due to a traitor inside the walls to whom `Bohemond often sent
messages, sounding as to whether he would receive him in to the city’.
Through this one can see how the division of Islam made it possible for
those on the First Crusade to succeed in taking the Holy Land.
18.104.22.168 the Crusaders never had one
united front to face, making
success far easier to achieve.
2 Military Leadership
2.1 Bohemund - Dorylaeum
2.1.1 Kilij Arslan's army launched an attack on the 20,000 smaller contingent ahead of the
main fleet - Bohemund arranged them into a tight defensive formation which held out
for 5 hours until the main fleet arrived.
22.214.171.124 When the main fleet arrived they
fled - Kilij arslan caused many local
leaders to lose faith in his
leadership. Cities of W. Anatolia
surrendered one by one.
2.2 Godfrey - Jerusalem
2.2.1 Godfrey moved a siege tower overnight
to a weak spot in the wall on the East
2.3 Continents organised making them more effective - 8
princes/lords at the front, 200 wealthy lords behind them,
6,000 knights on horseback, 22,000 well equiped foot
soldiers and 22,000 poorer behind them.
2.4 Disiplined army - didn't lose masses
to violence like the peasants' crusade
--> members' were committed!
2.4.1 Lead them into battle
126.96.36.199 Primary accounts of the first Crusade are full of praise for the great deeds of the men who realized that
the Crusaders `must unite to survive`, such as the tale Bohemond of rallying soldiers with the claim that
“if our enemies find you without a leader you will all die” before leading them back on in to battle to
2.5 Bohemund at Antioch - alliance with an insider.
2.6 Bohemund Vs. Kerbogha -
surprise attack took muslims by
surprise and tight formation
made them undefeatable, even
though they were outnumbered.
3.1 Bartholomew and Holy
Lance - Antioch
3.1.1 God had shown him where they would find the
remains of the Lance used to pierce Jesus when
he was crucified - found on the 14th of June
under the floor of Antioch cathedral. --- sign
188.8.131.52 many more started to claim visions and signs from
3.2 Visions of
Adhemar Le Puy -
3.3 Dorylaeum encouraged by religious
chants - 'Stand together, trusting in
Christ... Today we may gain much
3.4 intensified by
3.4.1 called for crusaders to pray and
fast. women ordered to leave the
crusaders' camp - refrain from all
3.4.2 Carried the lance into battle against Kerbogha.
4.1 David Nicolle -
4.1.1 Raymond's contingent -
10,000 --> the largest!
4.1.2 Largest assembled since the rule of the Roman Empire
4.2 outnumbered against Kerbogha
5 Help from Byzantium
5.1.1 food supplies and weaponry as they crossed the balkans - contributed to the strength of the crusaders!
184.108.40.206 Less died from starvation, illness and violence!
5.3 stephen of blois was not convinced
of Bohemund's plan at Antioch -
deserted on the 2nd of June --> Met
Alexios who was arriving to join the
army with reinforcements - warned
the emperor the crusader's were
damned, so he turned back.