The state was bankrupt.
So,Louis XVI imposed new increased taxes,even for the upper classes.
1.4 Social crisis
The 3 estates of the realm were discontented with the crown,each one for different reasons.
-The nobility and clergy wanted to preserve their priviliges and didn't want to pay taxes.
-The middle class and peasantry wanted representation in the goverment as well as stop paying so many taxes,they had big economic problems.
2 Major events/Stages
2.1 National Assembly
In the meeting of the Estates General,the Third Estate proposed that each representative would have an individual vote.The king refused.
The Third Estate declared themselves the representatives of the nation and formed the National Assembly and wanted a constitution.
-Cahiers of doleances
2.2 Constituent Assembly
First draft of the Constitution.
Storming of Bastille14 July 1789
-Declaration of Men and Citizens.
-Abolition of feudal rights.
-Covor Constitution of the Clergy: jurors/non jurors. (The government took the goods of the clergy).
Flight to Varemes (20-21 June)
Tennis Court Oath. (The government closed the place where the Third Estate met,so the went to a kind of Tennis Court and make this Oath,promising not to separate until France has a proper Constitution).
New Constitution was passed.
2.3 Legislative Assembly
Due to the new Constitution → new Assembly.
2 groups were created:
►Supported by the bourgeoisie.
►Supported by the sans-culottes.
What did Louis XVI did?
He asked Austria for support.
-Internal problems : Nobility and jurors were discontent so they joined foreign armies.
-External problems : Austria & Prussia declared war on April 1792 to France.
-Battle of Valmy, first french victory after several defeats on September 20th 1792.
-Attack on the Tuileries Palace,where the Royal family was.
2.4 The Conventi0n (1792-1795)
-Louis XVI was accused of Treason → he was executed.
-A new calendar,republican. Year 1 = 1792 / Day 1 = 2219
-New war due to Louis XVI execution,a part of the people wanted to stop the spread of the revolutionary ideas.
-Internal counter revolution (La Vendée) → supported by monarchists,clergy and nobility.
-12 members,led by Robespierre.
-Dictatorship,called the Terror → lots of executions : Marie Antoinette,Girondists and 45000 more.
-The government dealt with the European War the internal counter-revolution.
-New laws : universal suffrage and prices controlled.
-In 1794 Robespierre was removed from power.
2.5 The Directory and Consulate
-The moderate middle classes gained the control of France.
-More conservative government, there were 5 directors in charge.
-A censitary suffrage was imposed (limited male suffrage).
-Constitution of Year lll (1795).
-Radicals wanted to gain control → The Coup d'etat of Napoleon. (9 november 1799). End of the Directory.
-A group of 3 consuls,leaders.
-Napoleon Bonaparte decleared himself as head of state and First Consul.