Climate and Change

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Unit 1 Geography

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Climate and Change
1 Climate and Weather
1.1 Climate is average weather conditions
1.2 Weather is day to day changes
1.2.1 e.g. temperature
2 Looking at the past
2.1 Distant past
2.1.1 Know about climate change... From fossilised... Animals Plant Pollen From U shaped valleys left By retreating glaciers Sample ice sheets From Antarctica
2.2 Recent Past
2.2.1 Know from... Old photos Painting Journals/diaries Recorded harvest dates
3 Causes of Climate Change
3.1 Eruption Theory
3.1.1 Huge eruptions releasing Ash Sulphur dioxide
3.1.2 Cause a blanket of ash and gas Blocking sunlight reaching the earth's surface This cools down temperatures
3.2 Asteroid Collisions
3.2.1 When really large asteroids hit It sends tonnes of ash and dust into the the atmosphere It would block sunlight
3.3 Sunspot Theory
3.3.1 Sunspots are black areas on the sun Not permanent more spots means more solar energy Less means less solar energy towards earth Meaning colder earth
3.4 Orbital Theory
3.4.1 The way the earth orbits the sun changes the temperature
3.4.2 Sometimes the orbit is more circular and sometimes it is more ellipse
3.4.3 The earths axis tilts Sometimes straight Sometimes tilted
3.4.4 Sometimes the earths axis wobble
3.4.5 It changes how much sunlight the earth recieves
4 Viking Greenland
4.1 Erik the Red
4.1.1 Banished to Greenland
4.2 Beginning of the medieval warm period
4.3 There was land and sea free of ice
4.3.1 This meant They could farm Have good trade links They could hunt
4.4 After 4 centauries
4.4.1 The little ice age began It was colder Meaning Less food More sea ice So no trading
4.4.2 The Vikings in Greenland Died out
5 Little ice age
5.1 started in 1315
5.2 Colder and wetter summers
5.3 Caused fammine
5.3.1 Because of failed harvests
5.3.2 Potato began to be grown
5.4 Glaciers grew
5.4.1 Destroyed villages and farmland
6 Megafauna
6.1 Mass extinction
6.1.1 Humans hunted megafauna
6.1.2 Migrated Due to warmer climate To find climates that suited Food would have been hard in new location disrupting food chains
6.2 big animals
6.2.1 over 40kg
6.2.2 e.g. mammoth
7 Greenhouse Effect
7.1 Gases in the atmosphere trapping heat from sun
7.1.1 let heat in but little out
7.2 Natural process
7.2.1 keeps temperature
7.3 greenhouse gases
7.3.1 CO2
7.3.2 Methane
7.4 short wave solar radiation
7.4.1 passes through atmosphere short wave radiation is reflected off earth's surface some long wave is reflected back into space is reflected back to earths surface
8 Enhanced Greenhouse Effect
8.1 Lots more greenhouse gases produced by humans
8.1.1 mostly CO2
8.1.2 Warmer Earth melting ice caps etc...
8.2 e.g.
8.2.1 burning fossil fuels
8.2.2 transport
8.2.3 Homes
8.2.4 industry
8.3 New ways to slow production of greenhouse gases down
8.3.1 renewable energy
9 UK
9.1 Climate
9.1.1 temperate maritime mild temperatures rain all year
9.1.2 Affected by air msses Polar front it moves ffects whether or not be have cold or warm whether Polar and arctic air from north tropical air from south
9.2 Changing
9.2.1 Warmer? Polar front pushed north South rather than north warm air holds more moisture more rain? positvies lower heating costs more UK tourism Fewer elderly deaths from cold more exotic crops negatives Droughts and water shortages air conditioning costs plants and animals might die out more illness .g. heat stroke
9.2.2 Colder? polar front could move south heavier rain? more flooding?
9.2.3 Wilder? More storms more flooding more heatwaves Hard to predict
10 Egypt
10.1 Developing country
10.1.1 low emissions
10.2 feel large impacts of climate change
10.2.1 temp rise of 8 degrees by 2080
10.2.2 desertification
10.2.3 less rain failing crops
10.2.4 desertification
10.2.5 heatwaves 99% of people live on 5%of the land
10.3 Nile important for Water
10.4 if sea levels rise by 50cm
10.4.1 1/3 of Alexandria will be under water

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