Extreme Environments

juliasutton
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A-Level Geography (GCSE) Mind Map on Extreme Environments, created by juliasutton on 12/05/2013.

60
2
0
Tags
juliasutton
Created by juliasutton over 5 years ago
GCSE Geography - Causes of Climate Change
Beth Coiley
Characteristics and Climate of a hot desert
Adam Collinge
Physics GCSE equations unit 1
James Howlett
Chemistry Equations / Maths
Georgia B
AS English language terminology revision
Caitlin Hadfield
GCSE Geography Climate Change
EllieFlint
GCSE Geography Sustainability
EllieFlint
Unit 1: Challenges for the Planet
abdi88
Using GoConqr to study geography
Sarah Egan
Geography Coastal Zones Flashcards
Zakiya Tabassum
Extreme Environments
1 2 Poles
1.1 2 polar regions
1.1.1 Arctic
1.1.1.1 north of arctic circle
1.1.1.2 some ice sheet covered areas
1.1.1.2.1 e.g. Greenland
1.1.1.3 8 countries
1.1.1.3.1 Canada
1.1.1.3.2 Sweeden
1.1.1.4 home to Inuits
1.1.2 Antarctic
1.1.2.1 south of antarctic circle
1.1.2.2 sourrunded by ocean
1.1.2.3 vast ice sheets
1.1.2.4 governed by Antarctic Treaty
1.1.2.5 no people
1.1.3 intense cold
1.1.4 few people
1.1.5 Polar night
1.1.5.1 sun doesn't rise in mid winter
1.1.5.2 in winter earth's axis are titled away from the sun
1.1.6 midnight sun
1.1.6.1 sun does not set at all in mid summer
1.1.6.2 in summer the earth's axis are tilted towards the sun
1.1.7 low precipitation
1.1.7.1 usually falls as snow
1.1.7.1.1 causes high pressure
1.1.7.1.1.1 leading to lack of precipitation
2 Living in the cold
2.1 Flora and Fauna
2.1.1 Flora
2.1.1.1 Boreal(coniferous) forests
2.1.1.1.1 adaptations:
2.1.1.1.1.1 shallow roots to avoid permafrost
2.1.1.1.1.2 cone shape helps to shed snow
2.1.1.1.1.3 thin at top
2.1.1.1.1.3.1 bends in strong winds
2.1.1.1.1.4 evergreesn
2.1.1.1.1.4.1 photosynthesis can start early in the growing season
2.1.1.1.1.5 small (needle) leaves limit water loss
2.1.1.2 tundra vegetation
2.1.1.2.1 adaptations:
2.1.1.2.1.1 Cushion shape traps warm air in the centre
2.1.1.2.1.2 flowers can turn to follow the sun
2.1.1.2.1.3 Low to ground to keep out cold wind
2.1.1.3 vulnerable to global Warming
2.1.1.3.1 Warmer temperatures alter
2.1.1.3.1.1 flowering times
2.1.1.3.1.2 migrations
2.1.1.3.1.3 hibernations
2.1.2 Fauna
2.1.2.1 adaptations:
2.1.2.1.1 Migrating into the region in spring
2.1.2.1.1.1 but leaving before winter
2.1.2.1.2 thick, white fur
2.1.2.1.2.1 camouflage in snow
2.1.2.1.3 Dens dug into snow or caves
2.1.2.1.3.1 digging into permafrost is impossible
2.1.2.1.4 thick blubber
2.1.2.1.4.1 acts as insulation
2.2 indigenous groups
2.2.1 people who live traditionally
2.3 face difficulties
2.3.1 extreme cold
2.3.1.1 for months on end
2.3.2 Darkness and isolation in winter
2.3.3 permafrost
2.4 unique cultures
2.4.1 Inuits
2.4.1.1 knowledge of arctic animals and environment
2.4.1.1.1 know first if environment is changing
2.4.2 Nenets
2.4.2.1 Northern Russia
2.4.2.2 animist religion
2.4.2.2.1 believe everything has a souls and spirits
2.4.2.2.1.1 people
2.4.2.2.1.2 plants
2.4.2.2.1.3 rocks
2.4.2.2.1.4 animals
2.4.2.2.1.5 great respect for natural environment
2.4.2.2.1.5.1 we can learn from
2.4.3 Aleut
2.4.3.1 Alaska and Russia
2.4.3.2 skilled in using every part of a seal and whale
2.4.3.2.1 even use bones
2.4.3.2.1.1 for making needles and weapons
2.5 Adaptations
2.5.1 Building styles
2.5.1.1 Built on gravel pad
2.5.1.1.1 so heat from house doesn't melt permafrost
2.5.1.2 Water, sewage and power utilidor box is above ground
2.5.1.2.1 easier access for repair
2.5.1.2.1.1 permafrost is not melted
2.5.1.3 Triple glazing
2.5.1.3.1 to keep heat in
2.5.1.3.1.1 and cold out
2.5.1.4 thick insulation
2.5.1.4.1 to keep heat in
2.5.1.4.1.1 and cold out
2.5.1.5 Slopping roofs to shed heavy snow
2.5.1.6 traditionally igloos or temporary houses
2.5.2 Clothing
2.5.2.1 Traditional Inuit clothing
2.5.2.1.1 made from animal skins
2.5.2.1.1.1 sewn together with sinew
2.5.2.2 modern insulating clothing has replaced this
2.5.2.3 gloves, hats and multiple layers are essential
2.5.2.3.1 to prevent hypothermia
2.5.3 Transport
2.5.3.1 drivind is easier in winter
2.5.3.1.1 ground is solid
2.5.3.1.2 harder in summer
2.5.3.1.2.1 ground is boggy and unstable
2.5.3.2 skis, traditional dog-sleds and snowmobiles are traditionally used
2.5.3.3 frozen lakes
2.5.3.3.1 become 'ice roads' in winter
2.5.3.3.1.1 allow goods to be transported on trucks
2.5.4 energy use
2.5.4.1 Oil and Gas
2.5.4.1.1 main resources
2.5.4.2 solar and Hydroelectric
2.5.4.2.1 don't suit
2.5.4.3 high demand for heating and transport
2.5.5 Farming
2.5.5.1 arable framing isn't possible
2.5.5.2 Among Sami people
2.5.5.2.1 reindeer herding is traditional
2.5.6 Food
2.5.6.1 Inuit diet
2.5.6.1.1 50% fat
2.5.6.1.2 40% protein
2.5.6.1.3 includes:
2.5.6.1.3.1 whale
2.5.6.1.3.2 polar bear
2.5.6.1.3.3 seal
2.5.6.1.3.4 caribou
2.5.6.1.3.5 berries
2.5.6.1.3.6 seaweed
2.5.6.2 Now, most has to be imported
2.5.6.2.1 it's expensive
3 Desert
3.1 Australia
3.1.1 Due to
3.1.1.1 warm, moist pacific winds blow on shore
3.1.1.1.1 is caused to rise an cool rapidly
3.1.1.1.1.1 causing condensation
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 clouds from
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 rains on peaks
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 mountains that border the coast
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 The Great Dividing Range
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 air that descends from the mountains
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 is drier
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 rain shaddow
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 no rain gets behind them
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 to the west
4 Living in the desert
4.1 Flora
4.1.1 3 ways they have adapted
4.1.1.1 Succulence
4.1.1.1.1 store water in
4.1.1.1.1.1 'fleshy leaves
4.1.1.1.1.2 stems
4.1.1.1.1.3 roots
4.1.1.1.2 desert rains are infrequent
4.1.1.1.2.1 light and short
4.1.1.1.2.2 water evaporates quickly
4.1.1.1.2.2.1 water must be captured and stroed
4.1.1.1.3 adaptations
4.1.1.1.3.1 quickly aborb large amounts of water
4.1.1.1.3.1.1 through extensive shallow roots
4.1.1.1.3.1.1.1 can store water for long periods
4.1.1.1.3.2 stems and leaves have waxy cuticles
4.1.1.1.3.2.1 leaves almost waterproof
4.1.1.1.3.2.1.1 when stomata closes
4.1.1.1.3.3 during drought
4.1.1.1.3.3.1 metabolism slowes
4.1.1.1.3.3.2 stomata remains closed
4.1.1.1.3.4 camouflage
4.1.1.1.3.4.1 attractive to thirsty animals
4.1.1.2 Drought tolerance
4.1.1.2.1 shed leaves
4.1.1.2.1.1 preventing water loss
4.1.1.2.1.1.1 through transpiration
4.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 become dormant
4.1.1.2.2 extensive deep roots
4.1.1.2.2.1 penetrate soil and rock to access underground water
4.1.1.2.3 photosynthesise with low leaf moisture
4.1.1.3 Drought avoidance
4.1.1.3.1 most
4.1.1.3.1.1 survive one season
4.1.1.3.1.1.1 have a rapid life cycle
4.1.1.3.1.1.1.1 die after seeding
4.1.1.3.2 seeds last for years
4.1.1.3.2.1 only germinate when moisture is high
4.1.1.3.3 only germinate in autumn
4.1.1.3.3.1 after rain
4.1.1.3.3.2 before winter
4.2 Fauna
4.2.1 have to adapt to survive
4.2.2 The Bilby
4.2.2.1 small marsupial
4.2.2.2 adaptations
4.2.2.2.1 nocturnal
4.2.2.2.1.1 shelters in daytime to avoid dehydration
4.2.2.2.2 burrows for
4.2.2.2.2.1 moisture and cool conditions
4.2.2.2.3 low moisture needs
4.2.2.2.3.1 gets most from food
4.2.3 The perentie
4.2.3.1 giant lizard
4.2.3.2 adaptations
4.2.3.2.1 digs burrows
4.2.3.2.1.1 hides in rock crevices
4.2.3.2.1.1.1 to escape heat
4.2.3.2.2 hibernates from may to August
4.2.3.2.2.1 to avoid cold
4.2.3.2.3 low moisture needs
4.2.4 The red kangaroo
4.2.4.1 adaptations
4.2.4.1.1 hopping to find food
4.2.4.1.2 feeds at dawn and dusk
4.2.4.1.2.1 when air is cooler
4.2.4.1.2.1.1 sleeps during day
4.2.4.1.3 dew is important part of water intake
4.2.4.1.4 in females
4.2.4.1.4.1 rain triggers hormone response
4.2.4.1.4.1.1 only reproduce when water levels are high
4.2.4.2 largest marsupial
4.3 Adaptations
4.3.1 Buliding
4.3.1.1 traditional houses
4.3.1.1.1 thick walls
4.3.1.1.1.1 keep summer heat out
4.3.1.1.1.2 winter warmth in
4.3.1.1.2 flat roofs
4.3.1.1.2.1 sleeping area when it's too hot
4.3.1.2 underground to keep cool
4.3.1.3 verandas keep sun off windows and walls
4.3.2 energy use
4.3.2.1 modern buliding
4.3.2.1.1 have air conditioning
4.3.2.1.2 solar panels
4.3.2.1.3 wind turbines
4.3.3 Transport
4.3.3.1 traditionally used camels
4.3.3.2 4x4 get stuck in sand
4.3.3.3 light air craft and trains
4.3.3.3.1 more reliable
4.3.4 clothing
4.3.4.1 traditionally
4.3.4.1.1 head to foot
4.3.4.1.2 loose
4.3.4.1.2.1 reduces water loss by sweating
4.3.4.1.3 light coloured
4.3.4.1.3.1 reflects sun's heat
4.3.4.1.4 head coverings
4.3.4.1.4.1 prevents sunburn
4.3.4.1.4.2 keep head cool
4.3.4.1.4.3 keeps dust out
4.3.5 Water Supplies
4.3.5.1 Most farms have dams and reservoirs
4.3.5.1.1 to store water
4.3.5.1.1.1 that cattle and sheep can drink
4.3.5.2 boeholes
4.3.5.2.1 to tap into underground artesian water
4.3.5.2.1.1 rain soaks into desert soils and percolates into the bed rock
4.3.5.2.1.1.1 gradually water collects
4.3.5.2.1.1.1.1 if you drill a hole it comes up
4.3.5.2.1.1.1.1.1 using a windpump
4.3.5.2.1.1.1.1.2 under natural pressure
4.3.5.3 fragile methods
4.3.5.3.1 sustainable?
4.3.5.3.1.1 droughts have put pressure on landscape
4.3.5.3.1.1.1 animals still graze but dies
4.3.5.3.1.1.1.1 as the roots die nothing binds the soil together
4.3.5.3.1.1.1.1.1 so it's eroded by windstorms
4.3.5.3.1.2 underground water is being over used
4.3.5.3.1.2.1 beyond natural rainfall that recharges
4.3.5.3.1.2.1.1 water tables are falling
5 Values of Desert Culture
5.1 Aboriginal culture
5.1.1 people usually remain hidden
5.1.2 Healthy Eating
5.1.2.1 varies depending on location
5.1.2.2 fruits
5.1.2.2.1 bush tomatoes
5.1.2.2.1.1 used for chutney
5.1.2.2.2 desert limes
5.1.2.2.2.1 strong citrus flavour
5.1.2.2.2.2 used in jams and sauces
5.1.2.2.3 Quandongs
5.1.2.2.3.1 red berries
5.1.2.2.3.2 high vitamin C
5.1.2.2.4 Bush Bananas
5.1.2.3 Seeds
5.1.2.3.1 Wattle seeds
5.1.2.3.2 used in
5.1.2.3.2.1 bisuits
5.1.2.3.2.2 dressings
5.1.2.3.3 sandalwood nuts are
5.1.2.4 Grubs
5.1.2.4.1 the larvae of moths and beetles
5.1.2.4.1.1 eaten raw or cooked
5.1.2.5 Meats
5.1.2.5.1 traditional wild animals
5.1.2.5.1.1 kangaroo
5.1.3 beliefs
5.1.3.1 land is sacred
5.1.3.1.1 should be protected
5.1.3.2 live with few posessions
5.1.3.2.1 waste nothing
5.1.3.3 conserve water, firewood and other scarce resources
5.1.3.4 knowledge of medical properties of plants
5.1.3.5 understand impact of climate change
5.1.3.5.1 before everyone else
5.1.4 lifestyle
5.1.4.1 traditionally survived by hunting and gathering
5.1.4.1.1 Used fire to drive out animals for hunting and clearing land
5.1.4.1.1.1 to grow grass
5.1.4.1.1.2 fire tolerant plants now dominate the landscape
5.1.4.1.1.2.1 e.g. eucalyptus
5.1.4.1.1.2.1.1 some seeds need fire to germinate
5.1.4.2 aboriginal crafts
5.1.4.2.1 for hunting
5.1.4.2.1.1 boomerang
5.1.4.2.2 music
5.1.4.2.2.1 didgeridoo
5.1.4.3 customs and stories were spoken not written down
5.1.4.4 cultures dissappearing
5.1.4.4.1 younger generations are moving to cities
5.1.4.5 deep knowledge of medicines etc
6 Threats to the indigenous
6.1 Tourism
6.1.1 Popular to tourists
6.1.1.1 Ayres rock
6.1.1.1.1 Uluru
6.1.1.1.1.1 sacred to the aboriginis
6.1.1.1.1.1.1 tourists are asked to not climb it
6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 site educates about culture
6.1.1.2 Arctic tourist watch whales and glaciers
6.1.2 Fragile
6.1.2.1 only cope with small numberd
6.1.2.2 Aboriginal paintings could be destroyed in Uluru
6.1.2.3 Plants can be trampled
6.1.2.3.1 disrupting wildlife and breeding
6.1.2.4 traditional cultures have previously had limited contact
6.1.3 Cultural dilution
6.1.3.1 indigenous put on a 'show' for tourists
6.1.3.1.1 over time beliefs and values might be lost
6.1.3.2 Aborigini's are Australia's worst drug and alcohol abuse
6.1.3.3 aboriginals have a big problem with homelessness
6.2 Resources and Pollution
6.2.1 extreme environments are often exploited for resources
6.2.1.1 super pit gold mine in Kalgoorlie, australia
6.2.1.2 oil and gas extraction in Alaska
6.2.1.3 mining and drilling provides jobs
6.2.1.4 mining and drilling has environmental risks
6.2.1.4.1 mine waste spoils landscape
6.2.1.4.2 mining uses lots of water
6.2.1.4.2.1 this can be limited in arid regions
6.2.1.4.3 oil leaks causes environmental damage
6.3 decreasing population
6.3.1 limited economic opportunities
6.3.1.1 forces people to move away
6.3.2 lots of young people moving to cities and towns
6.3.2.1 attracted by jobs and education
7 Climate Change
7.1 effects are most obvious in extreme environments
7.1.1 arctic is warming faster than anywhere else
7.1.2 people living there only produce 5% of CO2 emissions
7.2 Only option is to adapt
7.3 In hot, arid regions...
7.3.1 like the Sahel
7.3.2 farmers are using intermeadiate technology
7.3.2.1 e.g. diguettes
7.3.2.2 and conservation farming methods
7.3.2.2.1 to help trap moisture in the soil
7.3.2.2.2 and to prevent soil erosion and drought
7.3.2.2.3 includes:
7.3.2.2.3.1 multi-cropping
7.3.2.2.3.1.1 alternative to single crop farming
7.3.2.2.3.1.1.1 where:
7.3.2.2.3.1.1.1.1 you have to plough all the land
7.3.2.2.3.1.1.1.2 moisture easily evaporates from all the land
7.3.2.2.3.1.1.1.3 one crop is planted
7.3.2.2.3.1.1.1.4 harvesting is done all at once
7.3.2.2.3.1.1.1.5 if the crop fails all income is lost
7.3.2.2.3.1.1.1.5.1 lead to starvation
7.3.2.2.3.1.2 reduces risk of crop failure
7.3.2.2.3.1.2.1 helps to increase crop yield
7.3.2.2.3.1.3 planting different crops on 1 area of land
7.3.2.2.3.2 where
7.3.2.2.3.2.1 plough only were you plant crops
7.3.2.2.3.2.2 moisture only evaportaes from parts that have been dug
7.3.2.2.3.2.3 several crop plants are mixed together
7.3.2.2.3.2.3.1 if one crop fails you have back up
7.3.2.2.3.2.3.2 multi-cropping
7.3.2.2.3.2.4 harvesting is done the whole year
7.4 Global agreement
7.4.1 to slow down climate change
7.4.1.1 by cutting greenhouse gas emissions
7.4.2 Kyoto Summit
7.4.2.1 1997
7.4.2.2 to cut greenhouse gas emissions
7.4.2.2.1 by 5.3%
7.4.2.2.1.1 by 2012
7.4.2.3 not very sucessful
7.4.2.3.1 ts of countries didn't reach targets
7.4.2.3.2 if countries had met targets
7.4.2.3.2.1 it would only have reduced temperatures by 0.1oC
7.4.3 2009- Copenhagen
7.4.3.1 They agreed
7.4.3.1.1 climate change was a major challenge
7.4.3.1.1.1 should be limited to 2oC
7.4.3.2 no targets set
7.4.3.2.1 so many countries set their own
8 Burkina Faso
8.1 in the Sahel
8.1.1 southern edge of Sahara
8.1.2 varying rainfall
8.1.2.1 relies on monsoon season for rain
8.1.2.2 major cause of poverty
8.1.2.2.1 if no rain
8.1.2.2.1.1 grass dies exposing soil to wind erosion
8.1.2.2.2 when rains comes
8.1.2.2.2.1 it's heavy
8.1.2.2.2.1.1 erode and wash away soil
8.1.3 semi- arid area
8.1.4 land can easily be degraded
8.1.4.1 by desrtification
8.1.4.1.1 deserts are spreading over farmland
8.1.4.2 population has grown
8.1.4.2.1 farmers have grazed too many animals
8.1.4.2.1.1 expossing soil to erosion
8.1.4.2.1.1.1 during rainy season
8.1.4.3 forest scrub has been cut down for fuel
8.1.4.4 boreholes and wells have been dug
8.1.4.4.1 to access groundwater
8.1.4.4.1.1 to water crops
8.1.4.4.1.1.1 water evaporates quickly
8.1.4.4.1.1.1.1 leaving salt deposities
8.1.4.4.1.1.1.1.1 that poison soil
8.1.4.5 barren, dry soil is vulnerable to wind erosion
8.2 Siguin Vousse
8.2.1 affected by drought and desertification
8.2.2 small village
8.2.3 over use of land has left villagers
8.2.3.1 unable o grow food to feed themselves
8.2.4 trees and grass were cleared for farming
8.2.4.1 when it does rain top soil is washed away
8.2.5 Oxfam Project
8.2.5.1 farmers encouraged to
8.2.5.1.1 bulid diguettes
8.2.5.1.1.1 intermediate technology
8.2.5.1.1.2 form barriers to erosion
8.2.5.1.1.3 line of stones
8.2.5.1.1.3.1 laid along contours of gently sloping farmland
8.2.5.1.1.4 slows down flow of rainwater
8.2.5.1.1.4.1 giving it time to soak into the ground
8.2.5.1.1.5 trap soil
8.2.5.1.1.5.1 builds behind stones
8.2.5.1.1.5.1.1 so reduces soil erosion
8.2.5.1.1.6 Success!
8.2.5.1.1.6.1 increased crop yields
8.2.5.1.1.6.1.1 farmers can feed themselves
8.2.5.1.1.6.2 same is being done in other villages
8.3 Oxfam started 'Argo-Forestier'
8.3.1 aimed to
8.3.1.1 prevent further soil erosion
8.3.1.2 preserve as much rainfall as possible
8.3.2 1979

Media attachments