Extreme Environments

Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A-Level Geography (GCSE) Mind Map on Extreme Environments, created by juliasutton on 12/05/2013.

Created by juliasutton over 5 years ago
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Extreme Environments
1 2 Poles
1.1 2 polar regions
1.1.1 Arctic north of arctic circle some ice sheet covered areas e.g. Greenland 8 countries Canada Sweeden home to Inuits
1.1.2 Antarctic south of antarctic circle sourrunded by ocean vast ice sheets governed by Antarctic Treaty no people
1.1.3 intense cold
1.1.4 few people
1.1.5 Polar night sun doesn't rise in mid winter in winter earth's axis are titled away from the sun
1.1.6 midnight sun sun does not set at all in mid summer in summer the earth's axis are tilted towards the sun
1.1.7 low precipitation usually falls as snow causes high pressure leading to lack of precipitation
2 Living in the cold
2.1 Flora and Fauna
2.1.1 Flora Boreal(coniferous) forests adaptations: shallow roots to avoid permafrost cone shape helps to shed snow thin at top bends in strong winds evergreesn photosynthesis can start early in the growing season small (needle) leaves limit water loss tundra vegetation adaptations: Cushion shape traps warm air in the centre flowers can turn to follow the sun Low to ground to keep out cold wind vulnerable to global Warming Warmer temperatures alter flowering times migrations hibernations
2.1.2 Fauna adaptations: Migrating into the region in spring but leaving before winter thick, white fur camouflage in snow Dens dug into snow or caves digging into permafrost is impossible thick blubber acts as insulation
2.2 indigenous groups
2.2.1 people who live traditionally
2.3 face difficulties
2.3.1 extreme cold for months on end
2.3.2 Darkness and isolation in winter
2.3.3 permafrost
2.4 unique cultures
2.4.1 Inuits knowledge of arctic animals and environment know first if environment is changing
2.4.2 Nenets Northern Russia animist religion believe everything has a souls and spirits people plants rocks animals great respect for natural environment we can learn from
2.4.3 Aleut Alaska and Russia skilled in using every part of a seal and whale even use bones for making needles and weapons
2.5 Adaptations
2.5.1 Building styles Built on gravel pad so heat from house doesn't melt permafrost Water, sewage and power utilidor box is above ground easier access for repair permafrost is not melted Triple glazing to keep heat in and cold out thick insulation to keep heat in and cold out Slopping roofs to shed heavy snow traditionally igloos or temporary houses
2.5.2 Clothing Traditional Inuit clothing made from animal skins sewn together with sinew modern insulating clothing has replaced this gloves, hats and multiple layers are essential to prevent hypothermia
2.5.3 Transport drivind is easier in winter ground is solid harder in summer ground is boggy and unstable skis, traditional dog-sleds and snowmobiles are traditionally used frozen lakes become 'ice roads' in winter allow goods to be transported on trucks
2.5.4 energy use Oil and Gas main resources solar and Hydroelectric don't suit high demand for heating and transport
2.5.5 Farming arable framing isn't possible Among Sami people reindeer herding is traditional
2.5.6 Food Inuit diet 50% fat 40% protein includes: whale polar bear seal caribou berries seaweed Now, most has to be imported it's expensive
3 Desert
3.1 Australia
3.1.1 Due to warm, moist pacific winds blow on shore is caused to rise an cool rapidly causing condensation clouds from rains on peaks mountains that border the coast The Great Dividing Range air that descends from the mountains is drier rain shaddow no rain gets behind them to the west
4 Living in the desert
4.1 Flora
4.1.1 3 ways they have adapted Succulence store water in 'fleshy leaves stems roots desert rains are infrequent light and short water evaporates quickly water must be captured and stroed adaptations quickly aborb large amounts of water through extensive shallow roots can store water for long periods stems and leaves have waxy cuticles leaves almost waterproof when stomata closes during drought metabolism slowes stomata remains closed camouflage attractive to thirsty animals Drought tolerance shed leaves preventing water loss through transpiration become dormant extensive deep roots penetrate soil and rock to access underground water photosynthesise with low leaf moisture Drought avoidance most survive one season have a rapid life cycle die after seeding seeds last for years only germinate when moisture is high only germinate in autumn after rain before winter
4.2 Fauna
4.2.1 have to adapt to survive
4.2.2 The Bilby small marsupial adaptations nocturnal shelters in daytime to avoid dehydration burrows for moisture and cool conditions low moisture needs gets most from food
4.2.3 The perentie giant lizard adaptations digs burrows hides in rock crevices to escape heat hibernates from may to August to avoid cold low moisture needs
4.2.4 The red kangaroo adaptations hopping to find food feeds at dawn and dusk when air is cooler sleeps during day dew is important part of water intake in females rain triggers hormone response only reproduce when water levels are high largest marsupial
4.3 Adaptations
4.3.1 Buliding traditional houses thick walls keep summer heat out winter warmth in flat roofs sleeping area when it's too hot underground to keep cool verandas keep sun off windows and walls
4.3.2 energy use modern buliding have air conditioning solar panels wind turbines
4.3.3 Transport traditionally used camels 4x4 get stuck in sand light air craft and trains more reliable
4.3.4 clothing traditionally head to foot loose reduces water loss by sweating light coloured reflects sun's heat head coverings prevents sunburn keep head cool keeps dust out
4.3.5 Water Supplies Most farms have dams and reservoirs to store water that cattle and sheep can drink boeholes to tap into underground artesian water rain soaks into desert soils and percolates into the bed rock gradually water collects if you drill a hole it comes up using a windpump under natural pressure fragile methods sustainable? droughts have put pressure on landscape animals still graze but dies as the roots die nothing binds the soil together so it's eroded by windstorms underground water is being over used beyond natural rainfall that recharges water tables are falling
5 Values of Desert Culture
5.1 Aboriginal culture
5.1.1 people usually remain hidden
5.1.2 Healthy Eating varies depending on location fruits bush tomatoes used for chutney desert limes strong citrus flavour used in jams and sauces Quandongs red berries high vitamin C Bush Bananas Seeds Wattle seeds used in bisuits dressings sandalwood nuts are Grubs the larvae of moths and beetles eaten raw or cooked Meats traditional wild animals kangaroo
5.1.3 beliefs land is sacred should be protected live with few posessions waste nothing conserve water, firewood and other scarce resources knowledge of medical properties of plants understand impact of climate change before everyone else
5.1.4 lifestyle traditionally survived by hunting and gathering Used fire to drive out animals for hunting and clearing land to grow grass fire tolerant plants now dominate the landscape e.g. eucalyptus some seeds need fire to germinate aboriginal crafts for hunting boomerang music didgeridoo customs and stories were spoken not written down cultures dissappearing younger generations are moving to cities deep knowledge of medicines etc
6 Threats to the indigenous
6.1 Tourism
6.1.1 Popular to tourists Ayres rock Uluru sacred to the aboriginis tourists are asked to not climb it site educates about culture Arctic tourist watch whales and glaciers
6.1.2 Fragile only cope with small numberd Aboriginal paintings could be destroyed in Uluru Plants can be trampled disrupting wildlife and breeding traditional cultures have previously had limited contact
6.1.3 Cultural dilution indigenous put on a 'show' for tourists over time beliefs and values might be lost Aborigini's are Australia's worst drug and alcohol abuse aboriginals have a big problem with homelessness
6.2 Resources and Pollution
6.2.1 extreme environments are often exploited for resources super pit gold mine in Kalgoorlie, australia oil and gas extraction in Alaska mining and drilling provides jobs mining and drilling has environmental risks mine waste spoils landscape mining uses lots of water this can be limited in arid regions oil leaks causes environmental damage
6.3 decreasing population
6.3.1 limited economic opportunities forces people to move away
6.3.2 lots of young people moving to cities and towns attracted by jobs and education
7 Climate Change
7.1 effects are most obvious in extreme environments
7.1.1 arctic is warming faster than anywhere else
7.1.2 people living there only produce 5% of CO2 emissions
7.2 Only option is to adapt
7.3 In hot, arid regions...
7.3.1 like the Sahel
7.3.2 farmers are using intermeadiate technology e.g. diguettes and conservation farming methods to help trap moisture in the soil and to prevent soil erosion and drought includes: multi-cropping alternative to single crop farming where: you have to plough all the land moisture easily evaporates from all the land one crop is planted harvesting is done all at once if the crop fails all income is lost lead to starvation reduces risk of crop failure helps to increase crop yield planting different crops on 1 area of land where plough only were you plant crops moisture only evaportaes from parts that have been dug several crop plants are mixed together if one crop fails you have back up multi-cropping harvesting is done the whole year
7.4 Global agreement
7.4.1 to slow down climate change by cutting greenhouse gas emissions
7.4.2 Kyoto Summit 1997 to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 5.3% by 2012 not very sucessful ts of countries didn't reach targets if countries had met targets it would only have reduced temperatures by 0.1oC
7.4.3 2009- Copenhagen They agreed climate change was a major challenge should be limited to 2oC no targets set so many countries set their own
8 Burkina Faso
8.1 in the Sahel
8.1.1 southern edge of Sahara
8.1.2 varying rainfall relies on monsoon season for rain major cause of poverty if no rain grass dies exposing soil to wind erosion when rains comes it's heavy erode and wash away soil
8.1.3 semi- arid area
8.1.4 land can easily be degraded by desrtification deserts are spreading over farmland population has grown farmers have grazed too many animals expossing soil to erosion during rainy season forest scrub has been cut down for fuel boreholes and wells have been dug to access groundwater to water crops water evaporates quickly leaving salt deposities that poison soil barren, dry soil is vulnerable to wind erosion
8.2 Siguin Vousse
8.2.1 affected by drought and desertification
8.2.2 small village
8.2.3 over use of land has left villagers unable o grow food to feed themselves
8.2.4 trees and grass were cleared for farming when it does rain top soil is washed away
8.2.5 Oxfam Project farmers encouraged to bulid diguettes intermediate technology form barriers to erosion line of stones laid along contours of gently sloping farmland slows down flow of rainwater giving it time to soak into the ground trap soil builds behind stones so reduces soil erosion Success! increased crop yields farmers can feed themselves same is being done in other villages
8.3 Oxfam started 'Argo-Forestier'
8.3.1 aimed to prevent further soil erosion preserve as much rainfall as possible
8.3.2 1979

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