Nervous system

Colleen Curley
Mind Map by Colleen Curley, updated more than 1 year ago
Colleen Curley
Created by Colleen Curley over 4 years ago


Bachelors Human Structure and Function (Principles) Mind Map on Nervous system, created by Colleen Curley on 12/09/2015.

Resource summary

Nervous system
1 Functions
1.1 Sensory input
1.2 Integration
1.3 Homeostasis
1.4 Mental Activity
1.5 Control of skeletal muscle
2 Central Nervous System
2.1 Brain and spinal cord
3 Peripheral Nervous System
3.1 31 pairs of spinal nerves and all neural tissue outside of CNS
3.1.1 12 Thoratic nerves
3.1.2 5 Lumbar nerves
3.1.3 1 coccygeal nerve
3.1.4 5 sacral nerves
3.1.5 8 cervical nerves
3.2 12 pairs of cranial nerves
3.3 Afferent division
3.3.1 Sensory info to CNS via ascending pathway
3.4 Efferent division
3.4.1 Motor info to glands and muscles via descending pathway
3.4.2 Somatic nervous system Skeletal muscle
3.4.3 Autonomic muscle system Smooth muscle, Cardiac muscle, Glands Sympathetic Ganglion close to CNS Parasympathetic Ganglion close to organ
4 Cellular organisation in neural tissues
4.1 Neurons
4.1.1 Communication
4.1.2 Large, prominent centrally located nucleus, lot of mitochondria, lot of Nissl bodies (RER) for neurotransmitter production
4.1.3 Axons Long cell process Single structure or branch= collateral axons Carry impulse away from body
4.1.4 Dendrites Short, highly branching cytoplasmic extenstion Sensory messengers to be processed
4.1.5 Cytoskeleton neurofilament- architecture Microtubules - axinal transport
4.1.6 Synaptic terminals Synapse communication with other cell
4.2 Neuroglia
4.2.1 Support, Defence and Myelination (insulation)
4.2.2 Oligodendrocytes Myelination in CNS
4.2.3 Astroglia White matter - fibrous astrocyte Grey matter protoplasmic astrocyte
4.2.4 Microglia Phagocyte in CNS
4.2.5 Ependymal cells Cubodial or low columnar lining in central spinal canal, no basement membrane, lining ventricles in cerebrum rest on basement membrane and secrete cerebral spinal fluid
4.2.6 Schwann cells Myelination in PNS Support non-myellinated axons which bury themselves into the schwann cell cytoplasm
5 Functional classifications
5.1 Sensory
5.1.1 Unipolar - single neuron process from cell body
5.2 Interneurons
5.2.1 Bipolar neuron - 1 dendrite, 1 axon
5.3 Motor
5.3.1 Multipolar- single axon, many dendrites
6 Spinal reflexes
6.1 Stimulus Receptor Sensory neuron Motor neuron Effectors Response
6.2 No interneuron in reflex arc of knee jerk
7 Myelin
7.1 Spiral of membrane wrapped around axon
7.2 Increase speed of conduction along axon
7.3 Space between small units = nodes of Ranvier
7.4 Multiple sclerosis, myelin of CNS attacked by immune system, destruction results in severe functional deficits, such as paralysis, loss of sensation and/ or loss of coordination
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