Data, Information, Knowledge and Processing

eleanorbradbury
Mind Map by eleanorbradbury, updated more than 1 year ago
eleanorbradbury
Created by eleanorbradbury almost 7 years ago
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Description

A2 ICT (1. Data, Information, Knowledge and Processing) Mind Map on Data, Information, Knowledge and Processing, created by eleanorbradbury on 04/09/2013.

Resource summary

Data, Information, Knowledge and Processing
1 Data, Information and Knowledge
1.1 Data is made of alphanumeric Characters
1.2 Information= Data + Structure + Context + Meaning
1.3 Knowledge is the application and use of information
2 Representation Methods
2.1 Text
2.1.1 Advantages
2.1.1.1 Clear to understand
2.1.1.2 Lots of Detail
2.1.2 Disadvantages
2.1.2.1 need to be able to read and undestand the language
2.1.2.2 level of detail can be confusing
2.1.2.3 Lots of text cannot be read quickly
2.2 Graphics
2.2.1 Advantages
2.2.1.1 Multilingual, do not need to be able to read a language
2.2.1.2 Can match what you see with physical shapes
2.2.2 Disadvantages
2.2.2.1 Confusing if you dont know the symbol
2.2.2.2 some symbols do not mean the same thing in different countries
2.3 Sound
2.3.1 Advantages
2.3.1.1 No fixed posistion
2.3.1.2 No line of sight required
2.3.1.3 Good for visually impaired people
2.3.2 Disadvantages
2.3.2.1 No good in large areas
2.3.2.2 Usually language based
2.3.2.3 May not know the sound
2.3.2.4 Need to be able to hear
2.4 Moving pictures
2.4.1 Advantages
2.4.1.1 Lots of information conveyed
2.4.1.2 Not language dependant
2.4.2 Disadvantages
2.4.2.1 Problems if sound attatched
2.4.2.2 Linear, if you do not see the start you may not understand it
2.5 LED
2.5.1 Advantages
2.5.1.1 Can be used in many places
2.5.1.2 Similar to graphics
2.5.1.3 Can keep information secure
2.5.2 Disadvantages
2.5.2.1 Need to be able to see the lights
2.5.2.2 Combination of lights needs to be known to be understood
3 Data types
3.1 Boolean- yes/no
3.2 Real- Numbers with decimals
3.3 Integer- whole numbers
3.4 Text/String- alphnumeric characters
4 Sources of Data
4.1 Direct- when you have collected the data
4.1.1 Advantage
4.1.1.1 Source and collection method are verified
4.1.1.2 Exact data can be collected
4.1.1.3 Data collected can be changed to needs
4.1.2 Disadvantages
4.1.2.1 May not get a large amount of data
4.1.2.2 Data may not be available
4.2 Indirect- when someone else has collected the data for the same or a different purpose
4.2.1 Advantages
4.2.1.1 Large range of data available
4.2.1.2 Data available from different time periods
4.2.1.3 Data may have already been analysed
4.2.2 Disadvantages
4.2.2.1 Do not know if collection was biased
4.2.2.2 Cannot be certain of accuracy
4.2.2.3 May not have all information about how it was collected
4.2.2.4 If the information was not orginally collected you can't get hold of it
5 Static and dynamic Data
5.1 Static - Cannot be changed
5.2 Dynamic - can be updated
6 Quality of information
6.1 Accuracy
6.2 Relevance
6.3 Age
6.4 Completeness
6.5 Presentation
6.6 Level of detail
7 Encoding Data
7.1 Validation
7.1.1 Ensures that data entered is reasonable, sensible, complete and within acceptable bounds
7.1.2 Range check
7.1.3 Presence check
7.1.4 Lookup check
7.1.5 Picture check
7.1.6 Type check
7.1.7 Check digit
7.2 Verification
7.2.1 Ensures source and object document are the same
7.2.2 Proof reading
7.2.3 Computer verification
7.2.4 Manual Verification
8 Back up and archiving
8.1 Backing up involves making a copy of the data
8.2 Archiving is removing data from direct acess
9 Cost of information
9.1 Hardware- specialist equipment such as scanners, graphics tablets ect
9.2 Software- desktop publishing or graphics packages ect
9.3 personnel - new employees and training staff
9.4 Consumable - electricity, paper and ink ect
10 Generic ICT system
10.1 input external data is put into the system
10.2 process - manipulating the data
10.3 storage - holding the data for later use
10.4 output - data beign passed outside the system
10.5 feedback - output influencing the input
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