Evidence for Evolution

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Evidence for Evolution
1 Fossils
1.1 Although some fossils may be missing, fossil evidence still shows how much/how little evolutionary change has occurred in a particular organism over a period of time.
1.1.1 Evolution of horses
1.1.1.1 Over time, it evolved from a dog- like animal whose habitat was in a forest, into a tall animal that adapted to living on the plains. In the process its feet also adapted to its environment in order for it to be successful.
1.1.2 Evolution of birds
1.1.2.1 Birds are considered descendants of certain dinosaurs - as opposed to descendants of some other group of reptiles.
1.1.2.2 Paleontologists and zoologists have long accepted that birds and reptiles are related. The two groups share a lot of characteristics; skeletal features, the laying of shelled eggs, and the possession of scales, although in birds, scales are limited to the legs.
1.1.3 Evolution of mammals
1.1.3.1 In mammals, each half of the lower jaw is a single bone called the dentary; whereas in reptiles, each half of the lower jaw is made up of three bones.
2 Anatomy
2.1 By comparing how one species body structures and adaptions are similar to another species, it helps to determine whether or not they both share evolutionary relationships and a common ancestor(s). Thus, anatomy assists in classifying organisms.
2.1.1 Birds
2.1.1.1 Hoatzin chicks as well as some chickens and ostriches have wings with claws. Proving that ancestors of birds had clawed hands
2.1.2 Turtles, Dolphins, humans , horses, birds, bats
2.1.2.1 The bones of these animals are similar, proving that they all inherited their structures from a common ancestor and only changed to adapt to different ways of life
2.1.3 Flying fox, Giraffe, Human
2.1.3.1 The traits are are homologous. All three limbs have similar bone, muscle, and nerve structures. The limbs were adapted for different needs through natural selection from the limb of the common ancestor of all three of these mammals.
2.1.3.1.1 (From left to right) Skeleton of human, flying fox, and giraffe
3 Embryology
3.1 An embryo is an unborn organism (animal or human) in its beginning stages. It shows whether the animals are similar; portraying that they are related, have common ancestors and that they started out the same.
3.1.1 Fish vs chickens/ humans
3.1.1.1 Both have slits for gills but fish develop gills, whereas humans gills and chickens gills disappear before birth.
3.1.1.1.1 Still poving that they both share a common ancestor with fish
3.1.2 hippo, frog, and rabbit
3.1.2.1 embrryos looked alike when they were devoloping
3.1.2.1.1 Although they evolved into different traits, it implies that they are all similar and shared an ancestor
3.1.3 Human VS dogs, horses, and monkey
3.1.3.1 human embryos have a well-defined tail by the fourth week of growth, similar to other mammals
3.1.3.1.1 After reaching its max length, the tail eventually shortens, persisting only as a rudiment in the adult coccyx.
4 Biogeography
4.1 Biogeography is the study of the distribution of plants and animals
4.1.1 Marsupials In Australia
4.1.1.1 Another example of how an isolated region seems to produce different animals that are nonetheless related to the nearest larger landmass
4.1.1.1.1 Even though Marsupials can live thousands of miles away, Marsupias in South America and Australia appear to be related.
4.1.1.1.1.1 Darwin didn't understand the concept at the time, this is probably due to the reason of plate tectonics.
4.1.1.1.1.1.1 When Australia and South America were united in a single continent, an "original" marsupial lived there, and then as the two contient gradually evolved into different species to better adapt to there new environment
4.1.2 Lack of Mammals on Islands
4.1.2.1 One of the most significant peices of biogeographical evidence in favor of evolution was the fact that mammals were almost never naturally present on islands that were more than 300 miles from the nearest landmass.
4.1.2.1.1 Darwin felt that it was hard for large terrestrial animals to get to isolated islands that were 300 miles from land, because it required traveling over large masses of water.
4.1.2.1.1.1 Such as, lack of mammals on islands suggests that mammals never made it to such islands, and thus never had a chance to evolve and adapt to those evnironments
4.1.3 Oceanic Islands
4.1.3.1 South America's Galapagos Islands
4.1.3.1.1 To show how isolated environments seemed to give rise to new species
4.1.3.1.1.1 Darwin observed that the species on both islands appeared to be closely related to the species on the nearest continent. He also included that the animals on these isolated islands must have been originally from the nearby continentn but because they were separated from the other species on the continent, they gradually evolved into something different over thousands of years.
5 Molecular Biology
5.1 The branch of biology that deals with the structure and functions of the macromolecules (E.g., proteins and nucleic acids) essential to life
5.1.1 Mastodons and Mammoths
5.1.1.1 Both animals were herbivores, but mastodons had cone-shaped cusps on their molars designed to crush leaves, twigs and branches. Mammoths, however, had ridged molars that allowed them to cut through vegetation and graze like modern-day elephants.
5.1.2 Mammoths VS elephants
5.1.2.1 Share DNA; which proves they have a recent common ancestor
5.1.3 Roundworms, for example, share 25% of their genes with humans.
5.1.3.1 Although the genes are different in both species, they are still similar; proving that they share an ancestor (s)
5.1.4 Human molecules are similar to those of chimpanzee, unlike cows, and very unlike slime molds.
5.2 Words To know
5.2.1 Amino Acid: An organic compound from which proteins are made
5.2.2 Nucleotide: A unit from which DNA molecules are made
5.2.3 Cell: The basic unit of a living organism; cells are structured to perform highly specialized functions
5.2.4 Horome: A chemical produced in living cells that is carried by the blood to organs and tissues in distant parts of the body, where it regulated cellular activity
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