The Cardiovascular System

Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

A Levels Physical Education (Physiology And Anatomy) Mind Map on The Cardiovascular System, created by danny-hudson97 on 12/07/2013.

Created by danny-hudson97 almost 6 years ago
Physical education
First Aid
Jess Billitz
First Aid Quiz (billitz)
Jess Billitz
1984 - Good quotes to memorise
New GCSE Maths
Sarah Egan
The Skeletal System - PE GCSE EdExcel
Pe - Principles of Training
Beccadf 1
The Muscles in the body
Thomas Marshall
GCSE PE Revision
The Cardiovascular System
1 The Conduction System
1.1 6 Steps of system
1.1.1 1) Cardiac Impulses initiate from the SA (Sinoatrial) node in the right atrium 2) Impulses pass through right and left atrium walls to the AV node, causing both atria to contract, this is known as 'atrial systole' 3+4) The AV node conducts impulse down through bundle of HIS...
1.1.2 5) ... down through the left and right bundle branches to the apex of the heart 6) Impulses travel up around ventricle walls via purkinje fibres, causing both ventricles to contracts; this in know as 'ventricular systole'
1.2 The heart is myogenic - it generates its own electrical impulses called the cardiac cycle
2 Links between Conduction System and The Cardiac Cycle
2.1 The heart has a dual pump action with 2 separate pumps that work simultaneously to pump blood to two different destinations
2.2 The right side of the heart pumps de-oxygenated blood towards the lungs
2.3 The left side of the heart oxygenated blood towards the rest of the body
3 The Cardiac Cycle
3.1 Represents the mechanical events of one hartbeat. One complete cycle last approx. 0.8 seconds and consists of 2 phases that represent the contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle
3.2 Diastole (0.5s)
3.2.1 1) Both avia fill with blood. AV valves closed 2) Atria blood pressure rises above ventricular pressure 3) Rising blood pressure forces AV valves open and blood passively passes into both ventricles. Semilunar valves close
3.3 Systole (0.3s)
3.3.1 4) Both atria and actively forcing the remaining blood into ventricles 5) Semilunar valves remain closed 6) Both ventricles contract increasing ventricular pressure 7) Aortic and pulmonary forces open. AV valve closed 8) Blood forced out into: aorta to blood tissue/muscles = stroke volume; pulmonary arteries to lungs. N.B. only 40% is ejected at rest during ventricular systole 9) Diastole of the next cardiac cycles begins. Semilunar valves close preventing backflow of blood from aorta and pulmonary arteries
4 Cardiac Output , Stroke Volume and Heart Rate
4.1 Heart Rate (HR)
4.1.1 The number of times the heart ventricles beat in one minute.
4.1.2 Average resting heart rate is 70-72 bpm
4.1.3 Max heart rate is calculate using 220 - age
4.2 Cardiac Output (Q)
4.2.1 The volume of blood ejected by heart ventricles in one minute
4.2.2 Average = 5litres (Q) = 70ml (SV) x 72 (HR
4.3 Stroke Volume (SV)
4.3.1 The volume of blood ejected by heart ventricles per beat
4.3.2 Average Resting Stroke Volume is 70ml
5 Changes in heart rate
5.1 Resting heart rate
5.1.1 1) Average is 72, but a young, fit aerobic athlete may have have a resting HR of 60
5.2 Anticipatory Rise
5.2.1 2) Heart rate increases even before exercise due to release of adrenalin
5.3 Rapid increase in HR at start of exercise due to receptors
5.3.1 3) -Continues use of adrenalin (hormonal, -Propioreceptors (muscle/joint) relating to inc. motor activity (neural control), -Chemoreceptors relating to inc. CO2/lactic acid (decreased ph) and decreased O2 levels (neural control)
5.4 Continued but slower inc. in HR
5.4.1 4) -Continued effect of Chemoreceptors and Propiorecptors (neural control) -Increase in blood temperature (intrinsic control) -Increase in Venous Return (intrinsic control)

Media attachments