Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

GCSE Science Mind Map on GSCE SCIENCE C5, created by sib_tgara on 12/07/2013.

Created by sib_tgara almost 6 years ago
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1 Chemical in the Atmosphere
1.1 Oxygen 21%
1.2 Nitrogen 78%
1.3 Argon 1%
1.4 Carbon Dioxide 0.04
1.5 Molecules are substances with low melting and boiling points. Atoms within the molecules are held together by strong forces however the force between the different molecules is weak.
2 Chemicals in the Hydrosphere
2.1 The hydrosphere is made up of oceans, seas, lakes, rivers and puddles...
2.2 The hydrosphere contains ionic compounds that are dissolved in water
2.2.1 Ionic Compounds are made of charged particles called ions Ions with opposite charges are attracted to each other creating a giant lattice structure There are strong bonds called ionic bonds that hold ions together Ionic compounds have a high melting and boiling point making them solids at room temperature Most ionic compounds in the hydrosphere are salts like Sodium Chloride. When dissolved in water they can conduct electricity, because the ions are free to move
3 Chemicals in the Lithosphere
3.1 The Lithosphere is made up of the outer crust and mantle
3.2 Made up of a mixture of minerals containing silicon, oxygen and aluminium
4 Reactions between different types of elements produces compounds with different bonding and structure
4.1 Two metals
4.1.1 Compound has ionic bonding and a metallic structure
4.2 A metal and a non metal
4.2.1 Compound has Ionic Bonding and a giant ionic lattice structure Ionic bonding occurs when the the elements loose or gain electrons in order to have a full outer shell
4.3 Two non metals
4.3.1 Compound has covalent bonding and a simple molecular structure Covalent Bonding means sharing electrons and non metals share electrons in order to have a full outer shell All non metal reactions result in a simple molecular structure with the exception of SILICON DIOXIDE, GRAPHITE and DIAMOND. These three form Giant Covalent Structures. Carbon atoms in diamond form four covalent bonds in a very rigid structure making diamond the hardest natural substance. Despite being made of the same element, graphite's properties are very different. Carbon atoms in it form three covalent bonds creating sheets or layers of carbon atoms which can slide over each other. This is why graphite is slippery and often used as a lubricant

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