Ch-4: Ethernet Communications

Joshua Snider
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Mind Map on Ch-4: Ethernet Communications, created by Joshua Snider on 12/08/2013.

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Joshua Snider
Created by Joshua Snider almost 6 years ago
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Ch-4: Ethernet Communications
1 Networking Basics
1.1 uses MAC address to communicate on a LAN from host to host
1.2 Uses name resolution
1.2.1 broadcasts asking for info (all f's for MAC)
2 Ethernet Basics
2.1 def=contention based media access method that allows all host on a network to share the same bandwith of a link
2.2 collision domain=area of network where collision events are possible-where every host must pay attention
2.3 broadcast domain=area of network where a broadcast would reach-normally delineated by switches, hubs, etc.
2.4 CSMA/CD=carrier sense multiple access collision detection=a protocol for avoiding packet collisions=
2.4.1 monitor segment, if collision event, then all hosts stop transmitting for a while, then free-for-all to transmit
2.5 half-duplex=one pair of wires for transmitting or receiving. 30-40% efficient
2.6 full-duplex=two pairs of wire, supposed to be 100% efficient, uses point-to-point communication, requires dedicated switch port
2.6.1 switch to host, switch to switch, host to host (using crossover)
3 Physical Layer
3.1 EIA/TIA required ethernet use RJ-45 connection
3.2 inherent attenuation measured in decibals
3.3 crosstalk
3.4 802.3=ethernet LAN
3.4.1 802.3u=FastEthernet
3.4.1.1 802.3ab=Gigabit Ethernet on Cat 5+
3.4.1.1.1 802.3ae=Gigabit over fiber/coax
3.5 10Base2=10Mbps, coax, thinnet, 185m, BNC connector
3.5.1 10Base5=10Mbps, coax, thicknet, 500m
3.5.1.1 10BaseT=10Mbps, Cat3, 100m, phys star logic bus
3.5.1.1.1 100BaseTX=FastEthernet, 100Mbps, Cat3+, 100m
3.5.1.1.1.1 100BaseFX=mm fiber, 100Mbps,
3.5.1.1.1.1.1 1000BaseCX=twinax (double coax), 1Gbps, 25m
3.5.1.1.1.1.1.1 1000BaseT=Cat 5 UTP, 4 pair, 100m, 1Gbps
3.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 1000BaseSX=mm fiber, 1Gbps, max 550m
3.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 1000BaseLX=sm fiber, max 10km, 1Gbps
3.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 10GBaseT=10Gbps, Cat 5e+, economical
3.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 10GBaseSR=mmfiber, 300m, 10Gbps
3.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 10GBaseLR=smfiber, 10km, 10Gbps
3.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 10GBaseER=smfiber, 40km, 10Gbps
3.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 10GBaseSW=mmfiber, used with SONET, 300m
3.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 10GBaseLW=smfiber, 10km, SONET
3.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 10GBaseEW=40km, smfiber, SONET
4 Data Link Layer
4.1 responsible for hardware addressing and framing packets in prep for transmission
4.2 binary number=byte of 1's and 0's. values are 128,64,32,16,8,4,2,1 with value being adding all of the enabled spots.. decimal=regular numbers. hex=0-9 are regular, a=10, b=11,c=12,d=13,e=14,f=15, hex number is 0x or h then two values. convert from binary to hex by dividing into nibbles and changing value of nibble to hex value
4.3 MAC address=burned into NIC
4.3.1 first 24 bits are OUI (organizationally unique id) second 24 bits are vendor specific
4.3.1.1 of OUI,1st bit=I/G(individual group), if 0 it's a device, if 1 it's an ethernet broadcast. 2nd bit=G/L(global/local), if 0 it's globally admin'd, if 1 it's locally admin'd.
4.4 Ethernet stations pass data frames between each other using a group of bits known as a MAC FRAME FORMAT. This provides error detection from a cyclic redundancy check (CRC)
4.5 Channel bonding is a computer-networking arrangement where two or more network interfaces on a host are combined for redundancy and/or increased throughput
4.5.1 aka Link Aggregation or Cisco=EtherChannel
4.5.2 switch to server, switch to switch, or switch/router to ISP

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