Biology - Unit 2 - Key area 1

Roza Stevenson
Mind Map by Roza Stevenson, updated more than 1 year ago
Roza Stevenson
Created by Roza Stevenson almost 6 years ago
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This is all the things you need to know about th SQA higher course, Unit 2 Key area 1 parts a and b

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Biology - Unit 2 - Key area 1
  1. Part a
    1. Metabolic pathways
      1. Reversible and irreversible
        1. Steps can be skipped
          1. Only if there is an alternative route
        2. Membrane compartments
          1. Embedded in the phospholipid bilayer membrane
            1. Can be pumps, pores or enzymes
            2. Membrane compartments
              1. Increases surface area
                1. Increases the reaction rate
              2. Key terms
                1. Metabolism
                  1. Build up/breakdown of reactions in cells
                    1. controlled by enzymes
                    2. Anabolic pathways
                      1. Build up/synthesis reactions
                        1. Use up energy
                          1. glucose-1-phosphate ------> starch (GPS)
                            1. Amino acids ------> Proteins
                          2. Catabolic pathways
                            1. Breakdown/degradation reaction
                              1. Starch ---amylase---> Maltose (SAM)
                          3. Part B (Control of metabolic pathways)
                            1. Enzyme activity
                              1. Products
                                1. Low affinity with the active site
                                2. Substrate
                                  1. Affinity for the active site
                                    1. Induced fit (like a surgical glove)
                                      1. Active site changes shape to perfect fit the molecule
                                    2. Activation energy
                                      1. Energy needed to start a chemical reaction
                                        1. Enzymes lower the activation energy
                                    3. Each step in a metabolic pathway is controlled by a specific enzyme
                                      1. If an enzyme is missing (caused by a mutation) it will disrupt the pathway causing the reaction to stop
                                      2. Inhibited
                                        1. Slowed down/held back
                                          1. Competitive inhibition
                                            1. Inhibiter molecule has a similar shape to the substrate molecule
                                              1. Inhibitor attaches to the substrate molecule to block it
                                            2. Non competitive inhibition
                                              1. The inhibitor attaches somewhere on the enzyme (not on the active site)
                                                1. This changes the shape
                                                  1. Substrate no longer fits the active site
                                              2. End product inhibition/feedback inhibition
                                                1. End product of a reaction binds to the enzyme and inhibits its reaction
                                                  1. Substrate
                                                    1. Intermediate 1
                                                      1. Intermediate 2
                                                        1. Intermediate 3
                                                          1. Product
                                                            1. Enzyme 4
                                                            2. Enzyme 3
                                                            3. Enzyme 2
                                                            4. Enzyme 1
                                                          2. If the environment has enough of the product then the organism conserves energy
                                                            1. So the inhibitor attaches to an enzyme in the pathway to stop the product being produced
                                                              1. If the product isn't in the environment anymore the inhibitor will detach to let the process start again
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