4.1 - Non Specific Defences

Calum Mooney
Mind Map by Calum Mooney, updated more than 1 year ago
Calum Mooney
Created by Calum Mooney about 4 years ago
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Higher Human Biology Mind Map on 4.1 - Non Specific Defences, created by Calum Mooney on 01/14/2016.

Resource summary

4.1 - Non Specific Defences
1 Physical and Chemical Defences
1.1 Epithelial Cells
1.1.1 Form a physical barrier to prevent entry of pathogens
1.1.1.1 Skin
1.1.2 Produce secretions against infection
1.1.2.1 Mucus in trachea
1.1.2.2 Lysozyme in tears
1.1.2.3 Acid in the stomach
1.2 The immune system protects the body against pathogens, some toxins and cancer cells
2 Inflammatory Response
2.1 Caused by release of histamine by mast cells
2.1.1 Causes vasodilation of arterioles
2.1.1.1 Increases blood flow
2.1.2 Increased capillary permeability
2.2 Increased blood flow and secretion of cytokines
2.2.1 An accumulation of phagocytes
2.2.2 Delivery of antimicrobial proteins
2.2.2.1 Kill bacteria
2.2.3 Delivery of clotting elements
2.2.3.1 Form a clot to prevent microbes entering the bloodstream
3 Phagocytes and Natural Killer Cells
3.1 Phagocytes
3.1.1 Phagocytes and NK cells secrete cytokines
3.1.1.1 Stimulate the specific immune response
3.1.2 Phagocytes recognise surface antigen molecules on pathogens
3.1.2.1 Destroy the pathogen by phagocytosis
3.2 Natural Killer Cells
3.2.1 NK cells cause virally infected cells to destroy themselves by apoptosis
3.2.1.1 Cause the production of self-destructive/digestive enzymes within the virally infected cell
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