The Research Enterprise in Psychology

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Created by janayea.benko almost 6 years ago



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The Research Enterprise in Psychology
  1. 1) The Scientific Approach to Behaviour
    1. 1) Goals of the Scientific Enterprise
      1. - measurement and description: developiing ways and techniques that make it possible to describe behaviour clearly and precisely
        1. - unserstanding and prediction: using hypothesis, which is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables.
          1. - scientists use theories to better understand concepts. theories are systems of interrelated ideas are used to explain a set of observations.
        2. 2) Steps in Scientific Investigation
          1. - scientific investigations are systematic
            1. - step 1 - translate a theory into testable material
              1. -step 2 -figure out how to put the hypothesis ti the test
                1. -step 3 - collect data
                  1. -step 4- observations are converted to numbers to constitute the data.
                    1. step 5 - publication of research results
          2. 3) Advantages of the Scientific Approach
            1. -scientific approach offers 2 major approach .
              1. the first is its clarity and precision
                1. -the second is the greatest advantage which refers to the relative intolerance of error.
          3. 2) Looking for Causes: Experimental Research
            1. 1) Independent and Dependant Variables
              1. - an indépendant variable is a condition or event that an expérimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable
                1. dependant variable is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable.
              2. 2) Experimental and Control Groups
                1. -experimental groups of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable
                2. 3) Extraneous Variables
                  1. -extraneous variables are any variables other than the independent that seem likely to influence the dependant variable in a specific
                    1. -a confounding of variables occur when 2 variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects
                  2. 4) Variables in Designing Experiments
                    1. first it is sometimes advantages to use only one group of subjects who serve as their control group
                      1. second, it is possible to manipulate more than one independent variable in a single experiment
                    2. 5) Advantages and Disadvantages of Experimental Research
                      1. experiment has limitations
                        1. never have control over proceedings, must construct simple, contrived situations to test hypotheses
                    3. 3) Looking for Links: Descriptive/Correlational Research
                      1. 1) Naturalistic Observation
                        1. naturalistic observation a researcher engages in careful observation of behaviour without intervening directly with the research subjects or participants
                          1. reactivity occurs when a subjects behaviour is altered by the presence of an observer
                        2. 2) Case Studies
                          1. a case study is an in-depth investigation of an individual subject
                            1. -used to investigate certain phenomena, such as psychology disorders and neuropsychological issue.
                          2. 3) Surveys
                            1. survey research use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of participants behaviour
                              1. major problem with surveys is that they depend on self-report data
                              2. 4) Advantages and Disadvantages of Descriptive/Correlational Research
                                1. statistics is the use of math to organize, summarize and interpret numerical data.
                              3. 4) Looking for Conclusions: Statistics and Research
                                1. 1) Descriptive Statistics
                                  1. Descriptive Statistics are used to organize and summarize data.
                                2. 5) Looking for Flaws: Evaluating Research
                                  1. 1) Meta-Analysis
                                    1. a meta analysis is the combination of the statistics results of many studies of the same question yielding an estimate of the size and consistency of a variables effects
                                      1. checks the reality of a finding
                                    2. 2) Sampling Bias
                                      1. a sample is the collection of subjects of selected for observation is an empirical study,
                                        1. sampling bias exists when a sample is nit representative of the population.
                                      2. 3) Placebo Effects
                                        1. placebo effect occur when participants expectations lead them to experience some change even though they receive empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment.
                                        2. 4) Distortions in Self-Report Data
                                          1. the social desirability bias, which is a tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about ones self
                                            1. response set is a tendency to response to question in a particular way that is unrelated to the concept pf the question
                                          2. 5) Experimental Bias
                                            1. experimenter bias occurs when a researcher's expectations or performances about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained
                                          3. 6) Looking at Ethics: Do the Ends Justify the Means?
                                            1. 1) Ethical Guidelines for Research in Psychology in Canada
                                              1. ethical questions are often complex and the answers to such dilemmas aren't easy
                                                1. psychologists have trhe right to protect the rights, privacy, personal liberty, and self-determination of others.
                                                  1. psychologists should take available measures to ensure that their activities will benefit those with whom they intersect in a professional capacity
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