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The Research Enterprise in Psychology
1 The Scientific Approach to Behaviour
1.1 Goals of the Scientific Enterprise
1.1.1 Three sets of interrelated goals: Measurement and Description, Understanding and Prediction, and Application and Control Measurement and description- Having to make measurable concepts Understanding and prediction- During this process you have to make a hypothesis and also have variables Application and control- Apply what you have researched and put together a theory
1.2 Steps in a Scientific Investigation
1.2.1 Formulate a Testable Hypothesis Select the Research Method and Design the study Collect Data Analyze the data and draw conclusions Report what you have researched- usually journals are used
1.3 Advantages of the Scientific Approach
1.3.1 Clarity and precision Intolerance of error
2 Looking for causes: Experimental Research
2.1 Independent and dependant Variables
2.1.1 Independent- experimenter depends on the impact of other variables Dependent- affected by manipulation of the independent variable
2.2 Extraneous Variables
2.2.1 Extraneous variables- any variables other than the independent one Confounding variables- two var. that are linked together which make it difficult to sort out their specific effects Random assignment- subjects occur when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group.
2.3 Variations is Designing Experiments
2.3.1 Only using one group of subjects who serve as their own control group Can manipulate more than one independent variable in a single experiment In a single study there can be one than one dependent variable.
3 Looking for Links: Descriptive/Correlational Research
3.1 Naturalistic Observation
3.1.1 -Observation of behaviour without any interruption Less artificial than experiments Reactivity- subject's behaviour is altered by the presence of an observer Hard to put naturalistic observations into numerical data
3.2 Case Studies
3.2.1 in-depth investigation of a subject Clinical research depends on case-studies
3.3 Surveys
3.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Descriptive/Correlational Research
3.4.1 Give researchers a way to explore more questions that they would not recieve in experimental Disadvantage-can not control the effects and isolate cause
4 Looking for Conclusions: Statistics and Research
4.1 Descriptive Statistics
4.1.1 Used to organize and summarize data Central Tendency- mean, median, and mode. Using an average can be positive or negatively skewed Variability - used to estimate scores Standard Deviation, variability, normal distribution, percentile Correlation- two variables that are related to eachother
4.2 Inferential Statistics
4.2.1 used to interpret data and draw conclusions Statistical significance is said to exist when the probability that observed findings are due to chance is very low hypothesis testing involves deciding whether observed findings support the researcher's hypothesis
5 Looking for Flaws: Evaluating Research
5.1 Meta-Analysis
5.1.1 Combination of the statistical results of many studies of the same question, yielding an estimate of the size and consistency of a variable's effects Allow to check on the reliability of a finding
5.2 Sampling Bias
5.2.1 Sample- collecting of subjects selected for observation is in empirical study. Population- larger collection of people or animals Sampling bias: happens when a sample is not representative of the population from which it was drawn.
5.3 Placebo Effects
5.3.1 participants' expectations lead them to experience some change even though they recieve empty, fake treatment
5.4 Experimenter Bias
5.4.1 Occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained. Double-blind- research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters known which subjects are in the experimetal or control group
6 Looking at Ethics:Do the ends Justify the means?
6.1 Ethical Guidelines for research in Psychology in Canada
6.1.1 Principle 1: Respect for the dignity of Persons Principle 2: Responsible caring Principle 3: Integrity in Relationships Principle 4: Responsibility to Society
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