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How did the Cold War develop?

Description

International Relations: Section 4: How did the Cold War develop? 1943-56
E A
Mind Map by E A, updated more than 1 year ago
E A
Created by E A about 7 years ago
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Resource summary

How did the Cold War develop?
  1. 4.1: Why did the Cold War begin?
    1. Conflicting ideologies
      1. USA: capitalist economy, democratic system of gov.
        1. USSR: planned economy, communist state
        2. Breakdown of the Great Alliance
          1. Teheran Conference, 1943

            Annotations:

            • Stalin wanted to punish + weaken Germany with reparations but Churchill + Roosevelt wanted to rebuild Germany
            1. Yalta Conference, Feb 1945

              Annotations:

              • 4 agreements made: 1 – Germany would be divided into 4 zones: run by USA, USSR, Britain and France. 2 – Berlin (in East) would also be split into 4 zones. 3 – Free elections for countries of eastern Europe. 4 – USSR would join war against Japan in return for territory in Manchuria + Sakhalin Island.
              1. The Potsdam Conference, August 1945

                Annotations:

                • US President Roosevelt died in April 1945, replaced by Truman, during conference Churchill replace by Attlee. New leaders didn't get on well with Stalin. 2 agreements made: 1 – Nazi Party to be banned + leaders to be trailed as war criminals. 2 – Oder-Neisse rivers to be border between Poland and Germany.
            2. 4.2: The development of the Cold War 1945-48
              1. By 1945: In Europe, Capitalism in West, Communism in East
                1. Countries of Eastern Europe = satellite states

                  Annotations:

                  • USSR-backed Communist parties to take control of the country – in Bulgaria, Albania, Poland, Romania and Hungary opponents were beaten, murdered and frightened into submission.
                  1. By 1948: all Eastern Europe states had Communist govs.
                    1. 1946, Churchill: "Iron curtain"
                    2. US involvement in Europe
                      1. 1947, Policy of containment of Communism in Europe
                        1. Truman Doctrine, 1947

                          Annotations:

                          • Aim: Contain spread of communism, but not push it back
                          1. Marshall Plan, 1947

                            Annotations:

                            • Aim: Economic recovery of Western Europe to prevent spread of Communism + important for American businesses to have future trading partners.
                          2. Soviet response
                            1. Cominform, 1947

                              Annotations:

                              • Alliance of Communist countries. Aimed to spread communist ideas + help Stalin tighten his hold on his communist allies (restricted their contact with the West.
                              1. Comecon, 1949

                                Annotations:

                                • Aim: to coordinate production + trade of Eastern European countries.
                          3. 4.3: The development of the Cold War 1948-56
                            1. Berlin blockade and airlift, 1948-49
                              1. CAUSES

                                Annotations:

                                • Continue to occupy Germany or try to rebuild it?
                                1. Britain and USA wanted Germany to recover, wanted to rebuild it

                                  Annotations:

                                  • They could not afford to keep feeding its people + punishing German would not help future peace.
                                  1. USSR didn't want to rebuild Germany - Stalin suspicious why USA + GB did
                                    1. 1948, Trizonia (West Germany)

                                      Annotations:

                                      • Merging of US + GB + French zones. With help of Marshall Aid, West Germany began to recover and prosper ≠ East Germany poverty and hunger. Many east germans fled to the West through Berlin.
                                      1. Seen as a threat by Stalin to attack him
                                        1. Introduction of the Deutsche Mark in West G

                                          Annotations:

                                          • To further help economic recovery the USA and Britain introduced a new currency, the Deutsche Mark, in the three western zones. But they did not consult Stalin, and he was furious - a united and strong Germany posed a threat to Soviet security. 
                                      2. EVENTS
                                        1. Stalin closed all road + rail connections from Berlin to WG
                                          1. Aim: to force the Western Allies from Berlin
                                            1. Allies decided to airlift supplies into West Berlin

                                              Annotations:

                                              • Lasted until following Spring 1949. West Berliners supplied with everything from food to oil, and building supplies.
                                              1. Great success
                                          2. RESULTS
                                            1. May 1949, USSR lifted blockade
                                              1. Victory for West
                                                1. Relations hit rock bottom
                                                2. Zone controlled by USA, France + Britain = FDR, Aug 1949

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  • FDR = Federal Republic of Germany
                                                  1. Zone controlled by USSR = GDR, Oct 1949

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    •  GDR = German Democratic Republic
                                                3. Rival alliances
                                                  1. By 1956, 2 rival alliances
                                                    1. NATO, 1949

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • North Atlantic Treaty Organisation 
                                                      1. USA now formally committed to the defence of Western Europe
                                                        1. Stalin saw this as direct threat to USSR
                                                          1. Military alliance, main purpose: defend its members
                                                            1. Contained most of Western Europe states + USA + Canada
                                                            2. WTO, 1955

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • The Warsaw Pact
                                                              1. Response to NATO + West Germany joining NATO
                                                          2. Nuclear arms race
                                                            1. 1945-49, only USA had nuclear weapons
                                                              1. USA: A-Bomb 1945, H-Bomb 1952
                                                                1. USSR: A-Bomb 1949, H-Bomb 1955
                                                                  1. 1957, development of satellites, "space race"
                                                                    1. + USA and USSR developed ICBMs

                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                      • ICBMs = long-range missiles
                                                                2. 4.4: Hungary: The tightening of control
                                                                  1. In 1956, an attempted uprising in Hungary was brutally crushed by the USSR
                                                                    1. The uprising
                                                                      1. CAUSES
                                                                        1. Communist gov. established with support of USSR – RAKOSI
                                                                          1. Hungarians hated Rakosi + AVH

                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                            • AVH = Secret Police
                                                                            1. Brutality, execution, imprisonment of 1000s of opponents
                                                                          2. Falling standard of living + increased poverty
                                                                          3. EVENTS
                                                                            1. Protests got worse

                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                              • Stalin's statue pulled down and dragged through the streets
                                                                              1. Rakosi forced to resign
                                                                                1. Soviet tanks moved into Hungary
                                                                                  1. Nagy became PM
                                                                                    1. Soviet troops withdrew
                                                                                      1. Determined on reform
                                                                                        1. Demanded Khrushchev for withdrawal of Hungary from WTO + have neutral role in Cold War
                                                                                          1. Khrushchev = alarmed

                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                            • Free elections = end of Communism in Hungary + gap in iron curtain (Soviet buffer zone from West).
                                                                                            1. Soviet troops + 1000 tanks invaded Hunagry, crushed uprising, Nagy captured & shot
                                                                                  2. RESULTS
                                                                                    1. 3000 Hungarians killed, over 200, 000 refugees fled to the West
                                                                                      1. Highlighted the limitations of Khrushchev's policy of peaceful co-existence
                                                                                        1. New pro-Soviet gov., Kadar

                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                          • Re-established Communist control of Hungary + negotiated withdrawal of Soviet troops
                                                                                          1. Satellite states didn't dare challenge Soviet authority/reject Communism
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