Introduction to Social Psych

Helen Li
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Helen Li
Created by Helen Li almost 6 years ago
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Introduction to Social Psych
1 2 axioms of psych
1.1 social influence is pervasive
1.2 people construct their own reality
2 3 MOTIVATIONAL PRINCIPLES
2.1 1. People strive for MASTERY
2.2 2. People seek connectedness
2.3 3. People value ME and MINE
3 3 OPERATING PRINCIPLES
3.1 1) SUPERFICIALITY VS DEPTH
3.2 2. CONSERVATISM
3.3 3. ACCESSIBILITY
4 TYPES OF RESEARCH
4.1 CORRELATIONAL
4.1.1 a. observational
4.1.1.1 FESTINGER ET AL - THE CULT: SEEKERS
4.1.1.1.1 Cult believed aliens would eventually come and destroy world
4.1.1.1.2 leader of cult could communicate w/ aliens
4.1.1.1.3 when date came for supposed alien invasion nothing happened
4.1.1.1.3.1 belief REMAINED - leader successfully "convinced" aliens to stop invasion
4.1.2 b. archival
4.1.2.1 looking at past research to try and come up with hypothsis
4.1.2.1.1 Nisbett & co found felony-related murders vs argument-related murders
4.1.2.1.1.1 smaller cities and more south had more arguments - culture of honour
4.1.3 c. survey
4.1.3.1 self-reported data
4.1.3.1.1 HOW TO AVOID THESE PBS?
4.1.3.1.1.1 Tell them its important to be honest
4.1.3.1.1.2 1970s Bogus Pipeline Technique? :P
4.1.3.1.1.3 Covert measures eg IAT
4.1.3.2 PROBLEMS WITH SURVEY
4.1.3.2.1 wording pbs
4.1.3.2.2 order effects
4.1.3.2.3 context effects
4.1.3.2.3.1 "institute of SOCIAL research" vs. "institute of PERSONALITY research"
4.1.3.2.4 response options
4.1.3.2.5 social desirability bias
4.1.4 PROBLEMS
4.1.4.1 not causation - only correlation!
4.1.4.2 directionality problem - which one is affecting which?
4.1.4.3 3rd variable problem
4.1.5 FIELD STUDY
4.1.5.1 horn honking and temperature
4.1.5.2 people honk more when its hot!
4.2 EXPERIMENTAL
4.2.1 IV and DV
4.2.2 random assignment
4.2.3 control group for comparison
4.2.4 manipulation of IV
5 SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF REALITY :)
6 HUFFINGTON POST: SEXUAL ACTIVITY BY SMARTPHONE BRAND
6.1 between iPhone, Android & Blackberry
6.2 found iPhone users to have most sexual partners
6.3 does this mean iPhone users are more sexual?
6.3.1 NO! other factors eg diff in income, personality diffs etc
7 HEAT & AGGRESSION
7.1 baseball players more aggressive on hotter days
7.1.1 more likely to hit batter with their pitch!
8 RESEARCH PROCESS
8.1 1. Form a question
8.2 2. Search literature
8.3 3. Form a hypothesis
8.4 4. Create operational definition
8.5 5. Collect and analyse data
8.6 6. Propose/revise theory
9 WEB-BASED EXPERIMENTS
9.1 GOOD: collect lots of data and from wide range of ppl
9.2 BAD: likely to repeat p/s, ppl may not take seriously, read items carelessly, skip q.s
10 OBSERVATIONAL/NATURAL METHODS
10.1 GOOD: eco validity, easy to conduct, good for longitudinal studies
10.2 BAD: presence of observer influence behaviour, observer biases
10.3 good to have inter-rater reliability
11 SELF-REPORT/SURVEY METHODS
11.1 GOOD: collect data from many, ask q.s for range of topics
11.2 BAD: question wording. response options, inaccurate responses
12 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
12.1 RANDOM ASSIGNMENT
12.2 CONTROL
13 INTERNAL VALIDITY
13.1 Degree to which IV is only variable that affects DV
13.2 reduce demand characteristics to increase this
13.3 use deception
13.4 provide good cover story
13.5 high quality control condition
13.6 minimize experimenter expectancy effects
13.7 design studies with high sense of realism!
14 EXTERNAL VALIDITY
14.1 degree to which SAME RESULTS can be obtained if study were to be replicated & generalizability
14.2 design studies high in mundane realism
14.3 use random/representative sample
14.4 make participation convenient
14.5 conduct replications in diff settings
15 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
15.1 descriptive
15.1.1 using diagram/flow chart
15.2 thematic
15.2.1 look for themes in data (IPA)
15.3 discursive
15.3.1 consider why ppl phrase things the way they do
16 ETHICAL PRINCIPLES
16.1 review of research by research ethics board
16.2 provide informed consent
16.3 protect confidentiality
16.4 provide debriefing
17 CULTURAL IMPACT ON RESEARCH
17.1 impact of language
17.1.1 Americans - monkey + banana
17.1.2 Chiense - money + panda
17.1.3 lang may affect accessibility of diff types of thought

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