The Self

Helen Li
Mind Map by Helen Li, updated more than 1 year ago
Helen Li
Created by Helen Li about 6 years ago
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PSY220 Social Psych
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The Self
1 SELF-CONCEPT
1.1 context effects
1.2 developmental diffs
1.3 cultural attributes
1.4 internal attributes
1.5 values, worldviews
1.6 important group memberships
1.7 impacts self-esteem
1.8 changes from childhood to adulthood
1.9 Campbell et al (1996): ppl w/ low self-concept clarity tend to be neurotic, have low self-esteem
2 SELF-AWARENESS
2.1 Sense of self-identity
2.2 INDIVIDUALISTIC
2.2.1 eat your carrots, they're good for you
2.3 COLLECTIVISTIC
2.3.1 eat your carrots, think of the farmer who grew them for us
2.4 Independent vs Interdependent
2.4.1 Independent - focus on yourself, autonomous
2.4.2 Interdependent - focus on others, rely on others more
2.5 the more self-aware you are, the more you behave in line with your INTERAL SELF
2.5.1 Diener & Wallbom study
2.5.1.1 see if p/s would CHEAT
2.5.1.2 one group had mirror while doing test
2.5.1.3 other group did not

Annotations:

  • 70% continued to answer questions after timer told them to stop doing test!
2.5.1.3.1 this group cheated more!!
2.6 "knower" and "I" - aware of yourself as an object of your thoughts
2.7 STATE OF AWARENESS
2.7.1 cues from environment
2.7.2 personality disposition
2.7.3 look for SELF-DISCREPANCIES
2.7.3.1 no need to change behaviour/attitude
2.7.3.2 change behaviour to match set standards
2.7.3.3 reduce self-awareness so no need to change
3 Maintain sense of self
3.1 limited accessibility
3.1.1 only parts of you shown at certain times/places
3.2 selective memory
3.2.1 reconstruct our memory to fit our view of self
3.3 attribution
3.3.1 inconsistencies to situational factors
4 SELF-PERCEPTION THEORY (BERN)
4.1 use our own behaviour to infer smth about ourselves
4.2 evaluation of past behaviour
5 EXTRINSIC vs INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
5.1 EXTRINSIC: do it becuz there's smth in it for us
5.2 INTRINSIC: do it becuz we want to!
5.2.1 CULTURAL influences
5.2.1.1 collectivistic child does the best for puzzles his mother picked for him
5.2.1.2 individualistic child does the best for puzzles he picked for himself
5.3 OVERJUSTIFICATION
5.3.1 giving rewards to things that would normally have intrinsic motivation
5.3.2 this may lead person to change from intrinsic to extrinsic!
5.3.3 Mark Leppers study with MARKERS
5.3.3.1 Children play with markers on their own
5.3.3.2 those given reward for playing markers no longer played markers unless they got reward
5.3.4 Green-for-grade programs
5.3.4.1 for low SES youth - seems to be quite a good motivator!
5.3.5 POSITIVE EFFECTS
5.3.5.1 study showed that ppl who imposed earlier deadlines than the actual one on themselves felt more task enjoyment
6 SOCIAL COMPARISON THEORY (Festinger)
6.1 people evaluate personal qualities by comparing themselves to others
6.2 people most close/similar to you are prob useful sources of info about yourself!
6.3 SELF-EVALUATION MAINTENANCE MODEL (TESSER)
6.3.1 Impact of comparison depends on:
6.3.1.1 1. closeness of person being compared to
6.3.1.2 2. Importance of attribute
6.3.2 CLOSE PERSON + IMPORTANT ATTRIBUTE = FEEL BAD
6.3.3 CLOSE PERSON + UNIMPORTANT = BIRG

Annotations:

  • BIRG = basking in reflected glory
6.3.3.1 UNI FOOTBALL TEAM WON: 32% said "we won"
6.3.3.2 UNI FOOTBALL TEAM LOST: 18% said "we lost"
6.3.4 DISTANT PERSON + IMPORTANT = NOT PLEASANT
6.3.5 DISTANT PERSON + UNIMPORTANT = DON'T CARE
6.4 UPWARD COMPARISON
6.5 DOWNWARD COMPARISON
6.6 SILVER medalist feels worse than BRONZE medalist
6.7 GOOD comparisons??
6.7.1 study on college students
6.7.1.1 SUPERSTAR student was INSPIRATION for freshmen
6.7.2 upward comparisons can be good if they are RELEVANT + ATTAINABLE
7 SELF-DISCREPANCY THEORY

Attachments:

7.1 IDEAL SELVES
7.1.1 focus = positive outcomes
7.1.2 hopes, aspirations, dreams
7.2 OUGHT SELVES
7.2.1 focus = negative outcomes
7.2.2 duties, obligations, responsibilities
7.3 EXAMPLE: STAYING MARRIED
7.3.1 ideal:be happy in marriage
7.3.2 ought: avoid divorce!
7.4 REGULATORY FOCUS
7.4.1 How prevention/promotion-focused are you?
7.4.2 Regulatory Focus Questionnaire - Higgins et al 2001
7.5 we don't think about it if we don't pay attention to it!
8 EMOTIONS HELP REGULATE BEHAVIOUR

Attachments:

8.1 direct behaviour to proper goals
8.2 depends on APPRAISAL OF EVENT
8.2.1 this depends on CONTEXT
9 DEFENDING THE SELF
9.1 Key attributions (Weiner)
9.1.1 Stability
9.1.1.1 Is event STABLE OR NOT?
9.1.2 Control
9.1.2.1 Was there smth you could have done?
9.1.3 Internal / External
9.1.3.1 Smth that YOU caused or smth that wasn't in your control?
9.2 Easier to deal with events you have CONTROL over
9.2.1 ILLUSION OF CONTROL
9.3 LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
9.3.1 uncontrollable, external cause
9.4 DEPRESSION
9.4.1 uncontrollable, internal cause
9.5 transformed into a CHALLENGE!!
9.5.1 we have confidence to control outcome!!!
10 SELF-SERVING STRATEGIES
10.1 mismembering - very biased memories
10.2 false-consensus - idea that people are more or less THE SAME as us for bad behaviour
10.3 false-uniqueness - see ourselves as MORE UNQUE than we really are for good behaviours
10.4 unrealistic optimism - better than average effect, overconfident judgments
10.5 self-serving comparison - make favourable/downward comparisons
10.6 self-handicapping - doing smth to make you perform bad so you have excuse if you do perform bad!
11 SELF-ENHANCEMENT
11.1 Narcissism
11.1.1 no evidence to show we are any more narcissistic than we were a century ago!
11.2 act as buffer against negative situations
11.3 balance ACCURACY and OPTIMISM!
11.4 cultural diffs
11.4.1 INDEPENDENT: self-enhancement is natural
11.4.2 INTERDEPENDENT: self is connected with others hence self-criticism is natural!
12 PRESENTING OURSELVES TO OTHERS
12.1 SELF-EXPRESSION: behave in special way to express who you really are
12.2 SELF-PROMOTION: influence others' perceptions about you
12.3 INGRATIATION: attempt to be more attractive/likeable to target
12.4 SELF-VERIFICATION THEORY
12.4.1 people seek confirmation of self-concept even if it is negative!
13 SELF-MONITORING
13.1 HIGH = adjust behaviour to protect image
13.2 LOW = behave in ways that express true attitudes regardless of who's around
13.3 MANAGING ONLINE IDENTITIES:
13.3.1 we are much more involved in impression/image management
13.4 HIGH self-monitoring males go for attractive + unlikeable females
13.5 LOW self-monitoring males go for unattractive + likeable females
14 our view of ourselves is DISTORTED
15 FUNCTIONS OF THE SELF
15.1 interpersonal tool
15.1.1 stable identity to interact w/ others
15.2 decision-maker
15.2.1 reflects goals, values
15.3 regulatory system
15.3.1 maintain self
16 Affective forecasting - process of predicting impact of both +ve and -ve events on mood
17 SELF-CONTROL
17.1 radishes and chocolate study
17.1.1 1. 2 dishes = radishes or choc
17.1.2 2. 2 groups - 1 given taster of radishes, 1 given taster of choc
17.1.3 group who had taster of choc managed to solve puzzle for 8.5 mins only!
17.1.4 3. then had to solve puzzle
17.1.5 group given taster of radishes lasted 19 mins!
18 FACIAL FEEDBACK HYPOTHESIS
18.1 smile - feel happier
18.2 sitting straight - more pride
18.3 clenched fists - more anger
18.4 body movements create physio changes in brain
19 HOW TO KEEP UPBEAT?
19.1 self-serving strategies
19.2 be careful not to be too self-confident tho!
19.3 CIALDINI: "we avoid shadow of defeat and bask in glory of victory even if its reflected glory we still get a tan"
19.4 benefits of DOWNWARD comparisons - choosing partners for comparing to make us feel better about oursevles
19.4.1 Friendships: upward comparisons can be damaging to friendship - competitiveness!
19.4.2 Relationship: upward comparisons can be good - see your partner like your ideal self!
19.5 SELF-HANDICAPPING: BERGLAS & JONES (1978)
19.5.1 1. given anagrams that were either solvable or not
19.5.2 2. gave them praise - told some the reason while others were not told why
19.5.3 3. then could choose to take performance-inhibiting drug or not
19.5.4 RESULTS: only 13% of those told why decided to take drug but 70% of those who were NOT told why took the drug!
19.6 SELF-PROMOTION: strategy to make others think of you as competent in some way
20 CULTURE = nature of self is function of culture you live in
20.1 AMERICANS
20.1.1 +ve events more likely to happen to them than siblings
20.1.2 -ve events more likely to happen to siblings than themselves
20.2 JAPANESE
20.2.1 +ve events equally likely to happen to them and siblings
20.2.2 -ve events more likely to happen to them
20.3 BUT RMB ECOLOGICAL FALLACY - error assuming that r/s between variables at group level are same as those at individual level!!
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