Self and Social Understanding

Helen Li
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Developmental Psych Textbook and lecture notes combined

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Helen Li
Created by Helen Li almost 6 years ago
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Self and Social Understanding
1 Social cognition & the Self
1.1 Categorical self
1.2 Remembered self
1.3 Enduring self
2 Freud's Infant Egocentrism
2.1 differentiation of self is based on satiation of biological needs
2.2 Infants only care about themsevles - can't distinguish between themselves and world
3 SELF-AWARENESS
3.1 explicit self-awareness = self-recognition
3.2 Influences
3.2.1 sensitive caregiving
3.2.2 Feedback
3.3 To do with emotions of yourself and others
3.4 Self-conscious emotions (secondary emotions)
3.5 Possessiveness = sign of self-assertion
4 William James: The Self
4.1 SELF = both knower and known
4.2 we are both someone who knows things and someone who is known (by others)
4.3 I-self: know that we are separate from others
4.4 Me-self: traits we possess
5 RED DOT TASK
5.1 draw red dot/mark on child's forehead
5.2 place them in front of mirror
5.3 a) touch themselves on the forehead to try and rub it off
5.4 b) touch mirror image of themselves to try and rub it off
6 COOLEY: LOOKING GLASS SELF
6.1 we evaluate ourselves based on how others evaluate us!
6.2 How do I look in front of others?
6.3 How do others feel about me?
6.4 How can we change ourselves to satisfy others?
7 CHILDREN'S THEORY OF MIND
7.1 contributes to perspective-taking
7.2 enriched understanding of yours and others' mental lives
7.3 aware of inner self + your own private thoughts/feelings
7.4 DESIRE THEORY OF MIND
7.4.1 thinking that people always act consistent with their attitudes/desires
7.4.2 do NOT realise things such as BELIEFS yet
7.5 FACTORS
7.5.1 Language & Verbal reasoning
7.5.2 Social interaction
7.5.3 Security of attachment
7.5.4 Make believe play
7.5.5 Executive Function
8 FALSE-BELIEF TASK
8.1 1. show child smarties box
8.2 2. ask them what's inside it - they say Smarties
8.3 3. Show them that there's PENS inside, not Smarties
8.4 4. Then ask child what Sarah (hypothetical person) would think if they were shown Smarties box
8.5 5. Child says Sarah would think there are PENS in box
8.6 Child does not yet understand that what THEY know is not necessarily what OTHERS know!
9 Recursive thought
9.1 ability to see situation from 2 DIFF PERSPECTIVES
9.2 understand 2ND-ORDER BELIEFS: that someone's belief about beliefs of someone else is not always right
10 SELF-CONCEPT
10.1 Preschool
10.2 Toddlers
10.3 Early Childhood
10.4 Adolescence
10.5 George Herbert Mead: Self as Generalized Other
10.5.1 Children adopt the same view as the one others have of them
10.6 SELF-ESTEEM
10.6.1 Culture
10.6.1.1 Asian children tend to have lower self-esteem despite being generally good at academics
10.6.2 Childrearing
10.6.3 Children: ALL OR NOTHING APPROACH
10.6.4 Middle Childhood: use SOCIAL COMPARISONS
10.6.5 Adolescence: develop NEW dimensions of self-esteem
10.6.6 ACADEMIC COMPETENCE
10.6.7 PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS
10.6.8 SOCIAL COMPETENCE
10.6.9 PHYSICAL/ATHLETIC COMPETENCE
10.7 Multiple Selfs
10.7.1 Having diff versions of self in diff situations
11 ACHIEVEMENT-RELATED ATTRIBUTIONS
11.1 MASTERY-ORIENTED
11.1.1 Success = result of own ability
11.1.2 Incremental view of performance
11.2 LEARNED HELPLESS
11.2.1 Failures due to inherent lack of ability
11.2.2 Static view of performance
11.3 INTERNAL psychological cause
11.3.1 ABILITY
11.3.2 EFFORT
11.4 EXTERNAL psychological cause
12 Attribution Retraining
12.1 Train learned helpless children to re-evaluate performance, ability
12.2 Encouragement
12.3 Constructive criticism and guidance
13 IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION
13.1 Define who you are
13.2 What you value
13.3 Directions you want to pursue in life
13.4 IA (Identity Achievement)
13.5 IM (Identity Moratorium)
13.6 IF (Identity Foreclosure)
13.7 ID (Identity Diffusion)
13.8 FACTORS AFFECTING IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT
13.8.1 personality
13.8.2 famiy
13.8.3 Peers
13.8.4 School/community
14 PREJUDICE: Ingroup vs Outgroup
14.1 In group favouritism very easy to form
14.2 Prejudice can start young - kids get msgs about group status everywhere
14.3 Issue of decline of overt racial bias
15 REDUCE prejudice
15.1 promote intergroup contact
15.2 Promote multicultural classrooms
15.3 Cross-race friendships
15.4 Teaching children that traits are CHANGEABLE
15.5 Volunteerism
16 SOCIAL PB-SOLVING
16.1 1. Encode social cues
16.2 2. Interpret social cues
16.3 3. Formulate social goals
16.4 4. Generate pb-solving strategies
16.5 5. Evaluate each strategy and choose best one
16.6 6. Enact strategy
16.7 7. Peer reaction/response
16.8 Depends on child's mental state
17 PATHS
17.1 Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies
17.2 Intervention method for preschool children

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