River processes and pressures

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Revision guide for geography processes and pressures.
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River processes and pressures
1 Rivers
1.1 River Tees
1.1.1 The middle cource

Annotations:

  • - Moor land dried up. -Cattle put on this land.- River broadens out, altitude drops and rainfall decreases. - Sediment is smaller.- Landscape now in the low lands and flattens out. - Arable crops now.- Meanders frequently.- Oxbow lakes formed.- Meander has a yarm inclosed in it. - Eg. Stockton = straight channel.
1.1.2 The Upper course

Annotations:

  • - Cumbria moor lands. - Very damp and saturated. - Land altitude is 600m. - Rainfall rate = 1200 mm a year. -Water forms a stream. - Stream becomes a river and cuts a V-shaped valley. - Load transported as solute, suspended and bed load. - Load eroded and becomes smooth. - Waterfall called High Force, with rocks whinstone and carboniferous limestone. - Waterfall ledge falls and repeats. - Gorge formed.  
1.1.3 The Lower course

Annotations:

  • - River changes.- Near the mouth, river widens and becomes deeper - More deposition.- Fine materials. Material uses = Oil terminals, petre chemical work and iron and steel work. - Industrys critical to help the economy and take material round the world. - This is possible as there is deep water and big ships can collect goods. 
1.2 Soft engineering
1.2.1 Disadvantages

Annotations:

  • Not preventing flooding. not effective? May not have warnings soon enough. Lots of land unused. No specific flood help.
1.2.2 Advantages

Annotations:

  • The ecosystem is not disrupted and there is little cost involved. Allows people to reduce damage and casualties. No settlement damage. Nothing to flood. People more prepared for floods. Emergency responses faster.
1.2.3 Description

Annotations:

  • Reduces risks of flooding and encourages forests to grow. electronic warnings and evacuating effective. dividing areas into floodplains. Being ready to react to flooding.
1.3 Transport and erosion
1.3.1 Transport
1.3.1.1 Saltation
1.3.1.2 Solution
1.3.1.3 Suspension
1.3.1.4 Traction
1.3.2 Erosion
1.3.2.1 Hydraulic action
1.3.2.2 Solution
1.3.2.3 Attrition
1.3.2.4 Abrasion
2 Dams
2.1 Three gorges dam
2.1.1 $22.5 billion
2.1.2 Beijing
2.1.3 Opened 2003
2.1.3.1 Size

Annotations:

  • The dam is 2 km long and 60 stories high which is about 180 m There is 28 cubic meters of concrete and 32 generators. The river is the biggest in china. There were 40 thousand people working on the project.
2.1.3.2 Advantages

Annotations:

  • Produces over 20 thousand mega wots of power. China has become one of the fastest growing economies in the world. there is less flooding. Cheep and clean electricity is provided for 60 million people. It provided over 40 thousand jobs for workers.
2.1.3.3 Disadvantages

Annotations:

  • Water pollution has increased. migration problems have occurred. There were 150 acers environmentaly damaged. Many people had to relocate. Farm land was no longer fertile. Transport was slowed down.
2.2
3 Resevoirs
3.1 Kielder Water
3.1.1 Cost £167 million
3.1.1.1 Size

Annotations:

  • 250000 people visit a year.  The width is 2 miles and the length
3.1.1.2 Advantages

Annotations:

  • Tourism bring income to the area. Recreational opportunities. Impermeable rock for foundations. Limited agricultural value. Endangered species developed. Reduces flooding in Carlisle. Supplies water to the north west. Brings £6 million a year. Forestry plant 300 million trees a tear
3.1.1.3 Disadvantages

Annotations:

  • Farms and schools destroyed. Failure of the echo system. The price. Pollution the environment. It is not aesthetically. HEP. It has never been less than 90% full. Water companies loose out. It took two years to fill.
3.1.2 Holds 200 billion litters
3.1.3 Built from 1975 to 1982
3.2 Hard engineering
3.2.1 Advantages

Annotations:

  • Hydroelectric dams can produce electricity and prevent flooding. You can control the amount of water going though the channel. Stronger banks. Flow is more constant.
3.2.2 Dissadvantages

Annotations:

  • Very expensive to build and maintain. Effects the natural flow of the river and may cause other parts of the river to flood. Not aesthetically pleasing. Makes river deeper so velocity increases and so does flooding. 
3.2.3 Description

Annotations:

  • Blocking water from the river dams and reservoirs, to control the flow of water. Straitening the river channel. concrete banks in a channel to strengthen banks.
4 floods
4.1 Boscastle (MEDC)
4.1.1 August 16th 2004
4.1.1.1 Causes

Annotations:

  • Plenty of rain. V shaped valley channeled the water. Funneling.Saturated land from previous rain fall. Narrow river channel in the village.
4.1.1.2 Impacts

Annotations:

  • Social: People left homeless. Peoples buisnesses and livelihood destroyed. Mental effects on the victums. There is now better trust in rescue teams. Economic: 58 properties flooded. 84 cars destroyed. Cost lots to repair. Water, power, telephones and pipes were extensively damaged. Environmental: Trees were uprooted. River banks, roads and gardens eroded. Burst dranage pipes and cars pollutes the water.
4.1.1.3 Responses

Annotations:

  • Long term: They built a new bridge. They spent £4.6 million widening the river. They built in culverts to the river banks. The river was deepend. Short term: The fire department pumped away the water. Helecopters airlifted 80 people to safety. There were building searches. There were sand bags put into place. Roads were cleared.
4.1.2 Cost £4.5 million
4.1.3 440m gallons of water
4.2 Bangladesh (LEDC)
4.2.1 About £7 Billion
4.2.2 68% of the land flooded
4.2.3 July 8th 2004
4.2.3.1 Causes

Annotations:

  • The cyclones caused coastal flooding. 70% of land is only 1m above sea level. Melted water came down from the Himalayas. Heavy monsoon season. Poor dranage systems.
4.2.3.2 Impacts

Annotations:

  • Social: Homes destroyed. Stress and anxiety for local people. Car belonging to over 1000 washed away. 1 thousand died. 7 million homes destroyed. 25 million homless. 36 million effected. Economic: 25 business properties damaged. Visitor center destroyed. 90% of the industry in tourism corrupt. 15000 km of road damaged. Crops no longer. Environmental: Gardans destroyed. Crops killed. Animals habitats ruined. Water polluted. Trees could not grow.
4.2.3.3 Responses

Annotations:

  • Short-term: Flood aid form the government. Water purification tablets given out. Rescue teams. Free seed given to farmers. Shelters put up.
4.3 Flooding in the UK 2015/2016
4.3.1 York
4.3.2 Brighton
4.4 Storm Hydrographs
4.4.1
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