Pack 6 Cell recognition and the immune system Part 2

Jacob Shepherd
Mind Map by Jacob Shepherd, updated more than 1 year ago
Jacob Shepherd
Created by Jacob Shepherd about 4 years ago
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Information about the immune system and cell recognition

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Pack 6 Cell recognition and the immune system Part 2
1 Monoclonal antibodies
1.1 Antibodies that are produced by a single clone of B cells
1.2 Method:
1.2.1 1. Mice are injected by non-self material against which an antibody is required
1.2.1.1 2. B cells in the mouse produce a mixture of antibodies, these B cells are extracted from the spleen of the mouse
1.2.1.1.1 3. B cells are fused with cells that last a long time (a bone cancer cell is used)
1.2.1.1.1.1 4. Fused cells (hybridomas) are grown individually in tissue cultures
1.2.1.1.1.1.1 5. Any clone producing the correct antibody is grown on a large scale
1.3 Uses:
1.3.1 Targeting medication
1.3.1.1 Direct monoclonal antibody therapy
1.3.1.1.1 A monoclonal antibody is produced that is specific to an antigen
1.3.1.1.1.1 Antibodies are given to the patient and attach to the receptors on (for example) a cancer cell
1.3.1.1.1.1.1 The attachment blocks chemical signals that stimulate uncontrolled growth
1.3.1.2 Indirect monoclonal antibody therapy
1.3.1.2.1 Same as direct but adds a radioactive or cytotoxic drug to kill the cell
1.3.2 Medical diagnosis
1.3.2.1 ELISA:
1.3.2.1.1 1. Test sample antigens are attached to a well in a test dish
1.3.2.1.1.1 2. Unattached antigens are washed off
1.3.2.1.1.1.1 This will stop antibodies attaching to any unattached antigens
1.3.2.1.1.1.2 3. Antibody to the antigen to be detected is added
1.3.2.1.1.1.2.1 4. Excess antibody is washed off
1.3.2.1.1.1.2.1.1 If they aren't bound but still in the sample you will get a false positive result
1.3.2.1.1.1.2.1.2 5. A second antibody that only binds with the first and has an enzyme attached is added
1.3.2.1.1.1.2.1.2.1 6. Excess antibody is washed off
1.3.2.1.1.1.2.1.2.1.1 7. Colourless substrate to the enzyme is added
1.3.2.1.1.1.2.1.2.1.1.1 8. the enzyme will act on the substrate to form a coloured product if present
2 HIV
2.1 HIV directly attacks cells such as T helper cells that have a protein called CD4 on their surface
2.1.1 HIV infected cells die after released the replicated virus which then infect other T helper cells
2.1.1.1 This means B cells won't be stimulated to produce antibodies
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