Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

A-Level Environmental (Unit 2) Mind Map on Hydrosphere, created by amyct01 on 12/21/2013.

Created by amyct01 almost 6 years ago
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1 Properties
1.1 Changes of state: Chemical structure, weak hydrogen bonds, high boiling point, liquid at temperatures when its low molecular mass would make it a gas. Water at surface evaporates. 100°C and 1 atmosphere pressure, all H bonds break, turns to gas as it boils. Narrow temp range of state changes allows the hydrological cycle to occur.
1.2 Anomalous expansion: Water molecules in ice less densely packs than as liquid so ice floats. Water in lake cooled by cold air, as water is cooled below 4°C, molecules take up arrangement of solid, lowers density, water expands and cold water floats. Expansion on water is unusual. Deeper, warmer water unaffected as further cooling produces floating ice. Layer of cold water/ice prevents water below from freezing allowing most the lake to remain unfrozen.
1.3 Solvent: 'General physiological solvent' most biological reactions need dissolved water. Plant nutrients only absorbed if dissolved in water, materials transported in blood/sap are dissolved in water.
1.4 High heat capacity: heats, cools slowly, maintains climatic stability by moderating temperature changes.
2 Hydrological cycle
2.1 RT=Vol/average transfer rate.
2.2 Transfer rate: volume of material moved between reservoirs.
2.3 Residence time: average time a molecule remains in a reservoir.
2.4 Aquifer: underground rock structure from which water is abstracted.
2.5 Processes
2.5.1 Inputs: Precipitation: impacted by global climate change, urban heat islands.
2.5.2 Throughflow: Interception: impacted by deforestation, afforestation, urbanisation. Infiltration: impacted by soil compaction, urbanisation. Percolation: impacted by soil compaction. Groundwater flow: impacted by groundwater abstraction, artificial aquifer recharge, reduced infiltration/interception.
2.5.3 Outputs: Evaporation: impacted by reservoirs, increased temps. Transpiration: impacted by vegetation changes. River channel discharge: impacted by abstraction, flood drainage.
3 Reservoirs
3.1 Sedimentation - soil erosion, reduces volume.
3.2 Existing land use.
3.3 Environmental effect - habitat change, river flow changes, sedimentation, microclimate.
3.4 Geology - rock beneath impermeable, strong, no faults/seismic activity.
3.5 Estuarine barrages - form freshwater lake, water supplies, pollution and interference.
3.6 Catchment area - water flows to reservoir.
3.7 Topography - narrow exit, large deep basin, low surface area, large volume.
3.8 Pollution risk - land uses in catchment area not polluting. Flooded forest, anaerobic decay, methane.
3.9 Water supply - regular rainfall/inflow, large volume, not hot/dry.
3.10 Infrastructure - better near demand, otherwise isolated.
4 Rivers
4.1 River discharge, flow fluctuations, natural contaminants, pollutants.
5 Aquifers
5.1 Permeability.
5.2 Porosity - chalk, limestone, sandstone.
5.3 Geological structure - impermeable below, permeable above.
5.4 Overuse - reduced supplies, subsidence, surface hydrology changes (water table), ecological, saltwater incursion.
6 Abstraction
6.1 Abstractive uses - domestic, industrial, agricultural.
6.2 Non-abstractive uses - energy, transport, recreation, conservation.
7 Demand and supply
7.1 Demand - population, living standards, industrialisation, attitude, affluence.
7.2 Conservation and management - increasing availability , catchment management, aquifer recharge, better distribution, inter-basin transfer, metering, low water-use appliances, recycling grey water.
8 Quality - turbidity, pH, calcium content, pesticides, heavy metals, dissolved oxygen, chlorine retention, E. coli.
9 Treatment
9.1 Saltwater
9.1.1 Reverse osmosis - filtered at high pressure through partially permeable membrane (polyamide tubes.) Freshwater collected, remaining salty water released.
9.1.2 Distillation - water boiled, steam condensed and collected.
9.2 Freshwater
9.2.1 Screens - remove vegetation ect.
9.2.2 Sedimentation - static water, suspended solids settle.
9.2.3 Aeration - aerated, high dissolved oxygen content, remove dissolved metals.
9.2.4 Flocculation - clay particles neutralised by adding aluminium sulfate, mixed quickly, passed into clarifier tank, particles settle.
9.2.5 Activated carbon filters - activated carbon, removes organic chemicals.
9.2.6 Filtration - filters remove suspended solids and bacteria.
9.2.7 Sterilisation - addition of chlorine/ozone/UV kills pathogens.
9.2.8 Fluoridation - fluorides added, improves dental health.

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