River Flooding - Causes

Emily Gibson
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

GCSE Geography (Rivers) Mind Map on River Flooding - Causes, created by Emily Gibson on 12/22/2013.

Emily Gibson
Created by Emily Gibson almost 6 years ago
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River Flooding - Causes
1 Prolonged rainfall
1.1 Long period of rain - soil become saturated
1.2 Further rainfall can't infiltrate - increases run-off into rivers
1.2.1 Increases discharge
2 Heavy rainfall
2.1 A lot of runoff - increases discharge quickly
3 Snowmelt
3.1 A lot of snow or ice melts into river in short space of time
3.1.1 Increases discharge quickly
4 Relief
4.1 If steep sided valley - water will reach river channel much quicker
4.1.1 Increases discharge quickly
5 Geology
5.1 If river in area of impermeable rock, more water flowing on surface
5.2 More runoff - risk of flooding higher
6 Deforestation
6.1 Trees take in water (leaves, roots)
6.2 Cutting down trees increases volume of water that goes to river
6.2.1 Increases discharge
6.3 Causes soil errosion
6.4 So soil washed away - raises river bed
6.4.1 Reduces volume of water river can hold
7 Urbanisation
7.1 Buildings with impermeable surfaces (roads, concrete)
7.1.1 Increases surface runoff Increases discharge quickly

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