C2 - Material Choices (b)

nicole_j_baldwin
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Chemistry Mind Map on C2 - Material Choices (b), created by nicole_j_baldwin on 12/24/2013.

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nicole_j_baldwin
Created by nicole_j_baldwin almost 6 years ago
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C2 - Material Choices
1 Crude Oil
1.1 Mixture of hydrocarbons
1.1.1 Molecules that are made of a chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms only.
1.1.2 Varying chain length
1.2 Properties
1.2.1 As the length of the hydrocarbon changes the properties also change.
1.2.1.1 When supplied heat the smaller molecules receive enough energy to overcome the weak intermolecular forces
1.2.1.1.1 Low mpt and bpt
1.2.1.2 Longer chains need more energy
1.2.1.2.1 Higher mpt and bpt
1.2.2 Bonds in crude oil
1.2.2.1 Strong covalent bonds between the carbons and hydrogens of the molecule
1.2.2.2 Weak intermolecular molecular forces of attraction between molecules
2 Uses of Crude Oil
2.1 Separated by fractional distillation
2.1.1
2.1.1.1 Most of the hydrocarbons in crude oil are used to make fuels.
2.1.1.2 Some are sued to make new compounds
2.1.1.2.1 Plastics, medicines, fertilisers and food
2.1.1.2.2 Chemical synthesis
2.2 The petrochemical industry refines crude oil to produce fuels and lubricants.
2.3 It also produced raw materials that can be used to make synthetic chemicals
2.4 Some less useful hydrocarbons can be reacted with hydrogen so that they split into more useful hydrocarbons
3 Polymers
3.1 Polymerisation
3.1.1 Plastics are formed when lots of small molecules (monomer) join together to make a very long molecule (polymer)
3.1.1.1 Carbon based
3.1.1.2 Formed under high pressure
3.2 Properties
3.2.1 Polymers made from varying monomers have different properties
3.2.1.1 Strong and rigid
3.2.1.1.1 HDPE
3.2.1.1.1.1 Used to make milk bottles
3.2.1.2 Light and stretchable
3.2.1.2.1 LDPE
3.2.1.2.1.1 Plastic bags and water bottles
3.2.1.3 Strong and Durable
3.2.1.3.1 PVC
3.2.1.3.1.1 Rigid
3.2.1.3.1.1.1 Window frames and piping
3.2.1.3.1.2 Stretchy
3.2.1.3.1.2.1 Synthetic leather
3.2.1.4 Impact resistant and soft
3.2.1.4.1 Polystyrene
3.2.1.4.1.1 Packaging
3.2.1.5 Heat resistant
3.2.1.5.1 Melamine resin and polypropene
3.2.1.5.1.1 Plastic Kettles
3.3 Replacing natural materials
3.3.1 Synthetic fibres are replacing cotton, wool and silk
3.3.1.1 Lighter, more durable, water-resistant and often cheaper
3.3.2 Rigid PVC has replaced wood as a material for window frames
3.3.2.1 Weather-resistant, strong, durable, no painting
4 Structure and Properties of Polymers
4.1 Properties
4.1.1 Depend on molecular arrangement
4.1.2 Density
4.1.2.1 Polymers packed together tightly = high density
4.1.2.2 Polymer chains are spread out = low density
4.2 Forces
4.2.1 Weak forces
4.2.1.1 Free to slide over each other
4.2.1.2 Easily stretched
4.2.1.3 Low mpt.
4.2.2 Strong forces
4.2.2.1 Inflexible
4.2.2.2 higher mpt.
4.2.2.3 Cross links prevent free movement
4.2.2.3.1 Crosslinks are chemical bonds
4.3 Modification
4.3.1 Increase chain length
4.3.1.1 Stronger
4.3.2 Cross-linking
4.3.2.1 Stronger, stiffer, more heat resistance
4.3.3 Plasticisers
4.3.3.1 Softer and easier to shape
4.3.3.2 Work by reducing intermolecular forces
4.3.4 Crystallinity
4.3.4.1 Made more crystalline
4.3.4.1.1 Strighter chains with no branches
4.3.4.1.2 Higher density
4.3.4.1.3 Stronger and have higher mpt.
5 B