Physics Topic 5 - Generation and Transmission of Electricity

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GCSE Physics Mind Map on Physics Topic 5 - Generation and Transmission of Electricity, created by lydia_ward on 04/13/2013.
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Physics Topic 5 - Generation and Transmission of Electricity
1 Renewable and Non-renewable Resources
1.1 Renewable Resources
1.1.1 Hydroelectricity, Wind Turbines, Tidal Power, Solar Energy, Wave Power and Geothermal Energy are all types of renewable energy.
1.1.1.1 Hydroelectricity is generated by falling water in places where water can be trapped in high reservoirs.
1.1.1.2 Tidal power can generate electricity when turbines in a huge barrage (dam) across a river estuary turn as the tides flow in a out.
1.1.1.2.1 The difference between Wave and Tidal Power is that wave power can generate electricity when floating electrical generators move up and down.
1.1.2 Renewable Resources means that it will not run out.
1.1.3 Electricity is a flow of charged particles. The voltage gives a measure of the amount of energy transferred by the charges to an electric component
1.1.3.1 We use electricity for many things, and it all has to be generated using other forms of energy.
1.1.4 The Current is the rate of charge flowing.
1.1.4.1 The Voltage is an 'electrical pressure'.
1.2 Non-renewable Resources
1.2.1 Non-renewable Resources means that the resources cannot be replaced once they have been used and they will eventually run out.
1.2.1.1 Nuclear Power stations needs to be carefully decommissioned at the end of its life, so no radioactive materials escape into the environment.
1.2.1.1.1 Which is very expensive.
1.2.2 Coal has an estimated 164 years left before it runs out.
1.2.2.1 Gas has an estimated 67 years left before it runs out.
1.2.2.1.1 Oil has an estimated 41 years left before it runs out.
1.2.2.1.1.1 Uranium has an estimated 265 years left before it runs out.
1.2.3 Fossil-fuelled power stations produce waste gases, which can cause problems. For example, Carbon Dioxide emissions contribute to climate change.
1.2.3.1 Gases such as Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxides can cause acid rain.
1.2.4 Not all fossil fuels cause the same amount of pollution.
1.2.4.1 Natural gas is 'cleaner' than coal because it contains less nitrogen and does not contain sulfur.
1.2.4.2 Natural gas power stations also emit less carbon dioxide than other power stations producing the same amount of electricity.
2 Power
2.1 Investigating Generators
2.1.1 If you move a magnet into a coil of wire, a voltage is included in the wire.
2.1.1.1 If the wire is part of a complete circuit, the voltage will cause a current to flow in the circuit.
2.1.2 This process is called electromagnetic induction, and the current is produced is called an induced current.
2.2 Power Consumption
2.2.1 We use a lot of power a day, for example when we have a shower or putting the kettle on.
2.2.2 Power is measured in Watts.
2.2.3 Power (W) = Current (A) x Voltage (V).
3 Energy
3.1 Generating Energy
3.1.1 If you move a piece of wire in a magnetic field, an electric current will flow in the wire.
3.1.1.1 This process is called Electromagnetic Induction, and a current produced in this way is an Induced Current.
3.1.2 Some bikes have dynamo's attached to the wheels and when the wheels spins it turns the dynamo, which produces electricity, which powers the lights.
3.2 Paying for Electricity
3.2.1 The unit of measurement for energy is the 'Joule' (J). The amount of energy that is used by a working appliance each second is known as its power.
3.2.1.1 The unit of measurement for power is joule per second or watt (W). (1W = 1J/s)
3.2.1.1.1 (1 kW = 1000 W)
3.2.2 You can work out the cost of electricity using this formula.
3.2.2.1 cost (p) = power (kilowatt,kW) x time (hour, h) x cost of 1 kWh (p/kWh)
3.2.3 Power (watt, W) = energy used (joule, J) ------------------------- time (second, s)
3.2.3.1 P = E ------ T
3.3 Transmitting Electricity
3.3.1 Electricity is sent from power stations to homes, schools and factories by a system of wires and cables called the National Grid.
3.3.2 The power comes from the Power Station into a step up transformer (this helps to stops the energy being wasted as heat in the transmission lines).
3.3.2.1 The energy travels through the transmission lines into a step down transformer, so it is ready for the factories.
3.3.2.1.1 The energy then goes through another step down transformer, so it is ready for houses, shops and offices.
3.3.3 Voltage (primary) = Turns (primary) __________________________________ Voltage (secondary) = Turns (secondary)
3.3.3.1 V (p) = N (p) ________________ V (s) = N (s)
4 Reducing Energy
4.1 There are loads of things you can do to reduce you energy.
4.1.1 Solar Panels, Loft Insulation, Double-glazing, Cavity-wall Insulation, Insulation on Hot-wat Tanks and Draughtproofing.
4.2 The lenght of time it takes you to save the amount of money it costs to buy the item is Payback Time.
4.2.1 Payback Time = Cost ------------------ Savings per year
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