C3 - Chemicals in Our Lives

Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Chemistry Mind Map on C3 - Chemicals in Our Lives, created by nicole_j_baldwin on 12/28/2013.

Created by nicole_j_baldwin almost 6 years ago
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C3 - Chemicals in Our Lives
1 Tectonic Plates
1.1 Earth Layers
1.1.1 Crust Earths crust broken
1.1.2 Mantle Slow moving solid
1.1.3 Core Iron and Nickel
1.2 Move around
1.2.1 Continental drift
1.2.2 Few cm per year
1.3 Proof of continental drift
1.3.1 Magnetic clues Constructive plate boundaries new crust forms Magnatised 500,000 years Earth's polarity changes Rock solidifies either normal or reversed polarity Pattern Used to estimate rock ages Tracks movement
1.4 Sedimentary rocks
1.4.1 Rocks formed in different positions Different climates Different conditions
1.4.2 Geologists study the features to work out the environment in which they were formed Fossils Age Conditions based on species Ripples Formed underwater Sea River Shape of grains Water-borne Air-blown
2 Minerals in Earth's crust
2.1 Different rock types = different minerals
2.2 Formation Processes
2.2.1 Mountain building
2.2.2 Sedimentation
2.2.3 Dissolving
2.2.4 Erosion
2.2.5 Evaporation
2.3 Limestone
2.3.1 Sedimentary Layers of sediment form seas or lakes From shells, animal bones or erosion of pre-existing rocks
2.3.2 Calcium Carbonate
2.3.3 Formed from sea shells
2.3.4 Grey white
2.4 Coal
2.4.1 Fossilisation of plant matter
2.4.2 Carbon Black
2.4.3 Hard Formed under extreme pressures ie. Mountain building
2.5 Salt
2.5.1 Evapouration
2.5.2 Britain Underground deposits Formed when ancient seas containing dissolved salt evaporated eg. Cheshire and Teeside
3 Salt
3.1 Salt mining
3.1.1 Involves physical extraction of the salt Rock salt is: Drilled Blasted Dug out Transported to suface Involves machinery
3.1.2 Usually impure Used as grit on roads Can be separated Pure salt used for food flavourings Used for making chemicals
3.2 Solution mining
3.2.1 Water injected into the salt deposit Salt dissolves to form brine Pressure forces brine up to the surface Brine stored in surface wells Pumped to refinearies when needed
3.2.2 Impurities are removed at refinearies before water is evaporated leaving salt More pure Chemical and food industry
3.3 Sea
3.3.1 Salt can also be obtained from sea water Most pure
3.3.2 Hot counties Natural evaporation in shallow pools
3.4 Environmental issues
3.4.1 Land collapsation Subsidence Effects buildings and homes Risk can be reduced by leaving well-supported caverns in mines Caverns can be filled with land-fill after use
3.4.2 Needs a lot of energy Burns fossil fuels Uses up finite resources
4 Salt in the Food Industry
4.1 Use
4.1.1 Enhances flavour
4.1.2 Preservative Longer shelf life Dries the meat and thereofre kills bacteria
4.2 Health Issues
4.2.1 High blood pressure Strokes Heart attacks
4.2.2 Increased chance of: Stomach cancer, renal failure and osteoporosis
4.3 Government guidelines
4.3.1 FSA Provides advice
4.3.2 GDAs Given as % Clear and easy to understand
4.3.3 DoH Carry out risk assesments Advises Public
4.4 Economics
4.4.1 Reformulating costs too high
4.4.2 Taste bad
4.4.3 Not last long Decreased sales
5 Life Cycle Assessments
5.1 Show total environmental costs
5.2 Looks at each stage of the 'life' of a product
5.2.1 Works out potential impact of each
5.3 Stages
5.3.1 Choice of Material
5.3.2 Manufacture
5.3.3 Transportation
5.3.4 Use
5.3.5 Disposal of end product
5.4 When products are recycled...
5.4.1 Look is closed
5.4.2 Disposal impacts are reduced
5.4.3 Choice of material is the disposed product
5.5 For more info:
5.5.1 See page 34

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