Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

A Levels Sociology (Family and Households) Mind Map on Births, created by dottydiva96 on 12/30/2013.

Created by dottydiva96 almost 6 years ago
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1 Birth rate - the number of live births per 1,000 of the population per year
2 Fertility rate - the average number of children a women will have during her fertile years
3 Fertility rate is declining
4 Average age to have children is now 30
5 Fertility rates for 30s and 40s are increasing
6 Reasons for decline in birth rate
6.1 Changes in position of women
6.1.1 Pursuing careers
6.2 Decline in infant mortality rate
6.2.1 Parents no longer need to 'replace' children
6.3 Children have become an economic liability
6.3.1 They are units of consumption and have ''pester power'
6.3.2 No longer an economic asset - they are expensive
6.3.3 Laws banning child labour
6.3.4 Compulsory schooling
6.4 Child centredness
6.4.1 Socially constructed 'golden age' - childhood is now about 'quality' not 'quantity'
7 Infant mortality rate - the number of infant who die before their first birthday, per thousand babies born alive, per year
8 IIMR is declining because of
8.1 Improved housing and better sanitation
8.2 Better health and nutrition
8.3 Improved services for babies and mothers
9 Effects of changing fertility
9.1 Smaller families may lead to more dual earner couples
9.2 Fall in number of children reduces the 'burden of dependency' on working population
9.3 Public services and policies affected (schools etc)
9.3.1 Based on politics - gov may decide to have smaller class sizes
10 Dependency ratio - the relationship between the size of the working part of the population and the size of the non-working, dependent part
11 4.2 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2011

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